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Ch 05 PP 06

# Ch 05 PP 06 - Chapter 5 Currency Derivatives A forward...

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5 - 1 A forward contract is an agreement between a firm and a commercial bank to exchange a specified amount of a currency at a specified exchange rate (called the forward rate ) on a specified date in the future. Forward contracts are often valued at \$1 million or more, and are not normally used by consumers or small firms. Chapter 5 Currency Derivatives Forward Market

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5 - 2 Forward Market When MNCs anticipate a future need for or future receipt of a foreign currency, they can set up forward contracts to lock in the exchange rate. The % by which the forward rate ( F ) exceeds the spot rate ( S ) at a given point in time is called the forward premium ( p % ). F = S (1 + p % ) F exhibits a discount when p < 0.
5 - 3 Example S = \$1.681/£, 90-day F = \$1.677/£ annualized p = F S × 360 S n = 1.677 – 1.681 × 360 = –.95% 1.681 90 The forward premium (discount) usually reflects the difference between the home and foreign interest rates, thus preventing arbitrage . Forward Market

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5 - 4 A swap transaction involves a spot transaction along with a corresponding forward contract that will reverse the spot transaction. A non-deliverable forward contract (NDF) does not result in an actual exchange of currencies. Instead, one party makes a net payment to the other based on a market exchange rate on the day of settlement. Forward Market
5 - 5 An NDF can effectively hedge future foreign currency payments or receipts: Forward Market Expect need for 100M Chilean pesos. Negotiate an NDF to buy 100M Chilean pesos on Jul 1. Reference index (closing rate quoted by Chile’s central bank) = \$.0020/peso. April 1 Buy 100M Chilean pesos from market. July 1 Index = \$.0023/peso receive \$30,000 from bank due to NDF. Index = \$.0018/peso pay \$20,000 to bank.

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5 - 6 Currency Futures Market Currency futures contracts specify a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date. They are used by MNCs to hedge their currency positions, and by speculators who hope to capitalize on their expectations of exchange rate movements.
5 - 7 Currency Futures Market The contracts can be traded by firms or individuals through brokers on the trading floor of an exchange (e.g. Chicago Mercantile Exchange), automated trading systems (e.g. GLOBEX), or the over-the- counter market.

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