Lectures 5 & 6 - The Brain The Nervous System...

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The Brain
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The Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System Spinal Cord Brain
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Neurons Specialized cells that receive, process, and send information to other cells. Billions of them, with trillions of connections between them.
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Parts of a Neuron 1. Dendrites – receive info 2. Soma (body) – processes info 3. Axon – carries signal 4. Terminal buttons – send info (at synapse )
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Action Potential Message from soma to axon: “FIRE!” Or not. This is the "all-or- none" principle. Combined inputs (excitatory and inhibitory) determine whether it fires. Electrical signal travels down axon. (Can be very fast)
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The Most Primitive Brain Centers Brain Stem Region Medulla (breathing, heartbeat) Reticular Formation (consciousness) Thalamus (sensory relay station) Cerebellum (balance; motor learning and memory)
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Limbic System Amygdala (aggression, emotional memory) Hippocampus (memory formation) The case of H.M. Severe epileptic in his 30’s (during the 1950’s) who had a radical surgery
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Lectures 5 & 6 - The Brain The Nervous System...

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