Defining sport - Sociology 399 Sociology Sociology of Sport...

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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 399 Sociology Sociology of Sport Sports Sports Everyday, our mainstream media provides us with news about sports. Some stories celebrate well­deserved victories, while others lament behaviour evident within sport. Sometimes, they illustrate the inequity found in the larger society. What are Sports? What How are sports unique from other activities such as WWE? Who should govern these activities? Ultimately, what effect do sports have on members of society? Should sports be studied by academics? If so, to what end? Definition of Sports Definition Sports are: 1. Physical activities. 2. Competitive activities. 1. Institutionalized. 2. Played for internal and external rewards. Institutionalized Activities Institutionalized Institutionalization means that: – They contain standardized rules. – They employ regulatory agencies. – Organizational and technical aspects of the activity are important (i.e. equipment, training, technology, strategy etc.). – Learning game skills becomes formalized. Rewards Rewards Sports are played for both internal and external rewards. This distinguishes sports from play and dramatic spectacle. Play is an activity entered into for its own sake. Dramatic spectacles are intended for audience entertainment and are prearranged. Conceptual Difficulties Conceptual This definition tends to ignore many activities. – It might neglect those lacking resources to get involved in organized sport. – It might ignore those who define their activities as sports. Examples? Contested Activities Contested Sports are contested activities. Some will deem activities as unworthy of being perceived as real sports. – WNBA. – Paralympics. – Special Olympics. – Skateboarding. Contested Activities II Contested Who will participate in sports? – Should both men and women be allowed to participate? – Should members of all social classes be allowed to play? – Members of the LGBT community? – Should restrictions be acceptable at times? Contested Activities III Contested How will sports be sponsored? – Should Canadians pay for our athletes to perform in the Olympics? – Should private organizations be allowed to sponsor competitions? – Will corporate sponsorship have negative implications? The Sociology of Sport The A subdiscipline of sociology that that studies sports as parts of social and cultural life (p. 10). Sports are deemed to be social constructions because they vary from place to place and over time. The Sociology of Sport II The The psychology of sport emphasizes motivation, cognition, self­esteem, self­ confidence, attitudes and personality. That is, processes inside individuals. Sociologists study the context in which sports operate. This includes the reality outside and around individuals. Controversies Controversies Suggestions for structural change in sports threatens some people. These people might be inclined to blame individuals for structural problems. Controversies II Controversies Women in poor and working class households have lower rates of sport participation than other categories of people. 1. Women are less likely than men to have time, freedom, and money to play. 2. Women have little or no control over sports facilities. 3. Women have less access to transportation. Controversies III Controversies 4. Women are often expected to be responsible for social and emotional need of family members. 5. Many sports programmes are organized around men. How might these findings be threatening to those in positions of privilege? Should Sports Be Studied? Should Are sports worthy of academic consideration? Some might argue that they are merely recreational activities entered into voluntarily. Is it useful to examine what people do during their leisure time? What might be the benefits of studying sports? Why Study Sports? Why Sports are given special meaning in people’s lives. Sports are tied to important ideas and beliefs in many cultures. Sports are connected to major spheres of social life. ...
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