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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 399 Sociology
Sport, Gender, and Research Method Sport, Gender, and Research Method Method
While many people make claims about sport on the basis of personal experiences, sociologists systematically analyze empirical evidence before making knowledge claims. In this case, the focus is on the sportgenderpower link. Empiricism Empiricism
Disagreement regarding what constitutes empirical research. It refers to the systematic collection of evidence. In general, there are objectivists and subjectivists. Empiricism II Empiricism Objectivists There exists an objective, structured social reality We learn about the world by studying aggregate numerical trends Causal propositions and prediction Subjectivists
Social reality is made up of interpretations of the world We collect information on the mind sets of social actors Exploration What are the chances for any given How is social stratification individual/group in sport? experienced? Empiricism III Empiricism
Ontology refers to how people view the nature of social reality.
– Interpretations and opinions. – Identity. – Feelings. – Actions. Empiricism IV Empiricism
Epistemology refers to what people deem to be appropriate sources of knowledge.
– Commonsense. – Tradition/authority. – Faith. – Science. Unobtrusive Methods (pg 222) Unobtrusive
Unobtrusive methods are used when social scientists wish to observe behaviour from a distance.
– Secondary data analysis (historical and survey methodology). – Content analysis. – Discourse analysis. Reduces the “Hawthorne Effect”. Postmodernists who engage in discourse analyst would conclude that our language is sexist. Unobtrusive Methods II Unobtrusive
Topics for analysis:
– Levels of participation among women and men. – Gender representation in the media. – Explaining why gender is a stratifying variable in sports. – Discerning whether policy changes are effective. Unobtrusive Methods III Unobtrusive
What are the limitations of unobtrusive methods? What cannot be examined? Interviewing Interviewing
Likely the dominant method for collecting data on sportgenderpower. Closedended and openended questions. Structured, semistructured, unstructured. Interviewing II Interviewing
Examines issues such as how cultural expectation of masculinity are produced and reproduced. Examines how cultural expectations of femininity are resisted. Interviewing III Interviewing
What are the limitations of interviewing people to obtain data? Ethnography Ethnography
This is often referred to as participant observation. Researchers are placed in the middle of action and attempt to take on the roles and statuses associated with group membership. They help us understand how people experience sport. Ethnography II Ethnography
What are the limits to this methodology? Conclusion Conclusion
Sociologists who study sports will engage in debates about the nature of the sport genderpower dynamic. The type of questions posed in their research will dictate the type of methodology employed. Atkinson warns of methodological stagnation. Conclusion II Conclusion
There is a need for novel ideas on sport genderpower. Little positivistic work on women’s sport. There are too few ethnographic studies and experimental methods. There is a need for evaluation techniques. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course ECON 303 taught by Professor Tracey during the Spring '08 term at University of Calgary.
- Spring '08