IMMUNO TOXICOLOGY_final - IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY DR. V....

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1 IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY DR. V. Jagadeesan, Former Deputy Director ( Sr. Gr. ) Food and Toxicology Res. Centre, Natl. Inst. Nutrition , Hyderabad 1.Comprehensive Toxicology 2. General and Applied toxicology 3.Principles of Toxicology
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2 INTRODUCTION Immune system performs two essential functions To protect the individual from infection ( infection and neoplasia ) To provide a mechanism by which an individual can distinguish its own cells and molecules from those of other individuals . Both functions are highly conserved in evolution and commonly found among various vertebrate phyla .
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3 Introdn .( contd ) Any damage to the immune system by exposure to potential toxicants might compromise the individuals’ capacity to respond to infection , neoplasia and other challenges . Concern that certain toxicants may specifically act on the cells and tissues of the immune system has contributed to the emergence of the field of IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY
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4 IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY It is the study of how materials , particularly synthetic chemicals impact on the immune system and Whether such impacts compromise the health of the exposed individuals Such testing is performed in the lab animals as part of “ Hazard Identification Step”
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5 HAZ . IDEN. STEP In these studies , animals are exposed to a specific compound under controlled lab conditions and examined for demonstrable effects on the immune system Changes in Histological Serological Immunological Parameters are suggestive of immune toxicant . RESULT : Stoppage of such product development Worker/ public health alert measures If it is an immunosuppressive drug deliberately being developed , benefit –to – risk ratio
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6 Basic Immunology -I MAIN IMMUNE DEFENCE MECHANISMS 1. Mono nuclear phagocyes ( Fixed Macrophages & Circulating PMN neutrophils ) 2. Ag. Presenting cells ( Accessory cells ) 3 .Population of lymphocytes ( in blood,lymph nodes and peripheral lymphoid tissues ) All cell populations arise from stem cells in bone marrow. LYMPHOCYTES T CELLS B CELLS ( CMI ) ( Humoral ) 80% of lymphocytes are in blood & 20% in peripheral lymphoid tissues Most express T4 (CD4) or T8 ( CD 8 ) surface membrane antigens .
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7 BASIC IMMUNOLOGY - II T CELLS T4 ( CD4) T8( CD8) Concerned with activation Combat virus infected cells of B cells & macrophages by direct cell –cell contact for specific Ab. Production cytotoxic mechanism HELPER CELLS SUPPRESSOR CELLS T4 CELLS Th 1 Th 2 Th1 : They produce cytokines ( polypeptides ) which are major regulators of both normal adaptive immune response and innate inflammatory response like IL2, IFN (gamma),TNF ( beta ) Th1 cells promote Cell Mediated Immune Reactions Th2 : Production of IL3, TNF 9 alpha ), GM-CSF( Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor ) Development of humoral immunity
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8 CYTOKINES Immune system regulated by a variety of mediators known as ‘CYTOKINES’ They maintain normal immune function and control the development of the immune response to Ag.
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course DBT 456 taught by Professor Ss during the Spring '10 term at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.

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IMMUNO TOXICOLOGY_final - IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY DR. V....

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