QQRA - ? Objective...

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Millions of dollars 2003-2004 Planned Spending 2003-2004 Actual Spending Gross expenditures 432.9 773.5 Objective Promote health and prevent and control injury and disease.  Financial Information
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Cancer survivability
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Numerous reactive mutagenic electrophiles are present in the environment. Those electrophiles can directly react with DNA and are considered to be ultimate carcinogens. Under normal environmental circumstances human are exposed to low concentration of about a million electrophiles , the relation between exposure to such agents and adverse health effects (e.g., cancer) will become a ‘Pandora's box.
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Risk Assessment
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What is Risk? EPA considers risk to be the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. A stressor is any physical, chemical, or biological entity that can induce an adverse response
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What is risk assessment? Risk assessment is a scientific process and measures- -How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), -How much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and -The inherent toxicity of the chemical. EPA uses risk assessment to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans (e.g., residents, workers, recreational visitors) and ecological receptors (e.g., birds, fish, wildlife) from chemical contaminants and other stressors, that may be present in the environment.
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Patients receive high levels of extremely mutagenic agents to cure their disease. This makes the largest exposure of humans to known carcinogens. Ex: omeprazole causes cancer if taken high dose for long time.
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Mechanism of action by Mutagenic Agents Total of 243 mutagenic agents have been described so far. Cat 1: Agents that react with N7 and N3 moieties of DNA Cat 2: mutagens produce mono functional O - alkyl adducts in DNA in addition to N -alkyl DNA adducts Cat 3: Polyfunctional agents, capable of cross- linking DNA Cat 4: formation of cyclic DNA adducts
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Principles of risk assessment
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Risk assessment is the most important step in the risk management process where mitigation of risk using managerial resources is done. Risk assessment
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QQRA - ? Objective...

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