Immune_disorders - Immune disorders immunity & immune...

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Immune disorders immunity & immune disorders - extreme importance (comparable to bacteriology at the early 20th cent.) new diseases, immunological etiology in "old" diseases, immunotherapy - considerable amount of medical information immune system - important for survival increased or decreased immunity - disease
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Introduction B-lymphocytes - plasma cells - Ig A, M, G, E, D lymph nodes - cortex - germinal centers T-lymphocytes (60-70% in peripheral blood) lymph nodes - paracortex subspecialization (helper, suppressor, killer, natural killer)
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Introduction Macrophages Antigen-presenting cells - dendritic cells, Langerhans cells (skin) MHC system HLA complex antigens - ability to recognize own Ag from foreign ones importance in transplantation - rejection (destruction of the graft by host)
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1. Immune mechanisms of tissue damage inappropriate - hypersensitive reaction allergy - 4 types
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I. Anaphylactic type quickly developing after contact of Ag (allergen) with Ab previous exposition! B-cells - IgE mediated through histamine, leucotriens, prostaglandins (granules of mast cells & basophilic leucocytes) increase of vascular permeability, vasodilatation, bronchoconstriction, increased mucoproduction
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local reaction - skin or mucosa bee sting, food allergy, hay fever (pollinosis), asthma bronchiale, urticaria (hives) familiar predisposition - atopy systemic reaction parenteral administration of Ag (e.g. antiserum, drug-ATB) - systemic anaphylaxis -> anaphylactic shock minutes - itching, rush, redding of skin breathing problems, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea during several min - death due to collapse of circulation
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II. Antibody dependent type antigens - autologous (own) or homologous (another human) incompatible blood transfusion - destruction of RBCs Rh-incompatibility - fetal erythroblastosis (anti-Rh Ab)
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III. Immune complex diseases formation of Ag-Ab complexes (immune complexes ) activation of complement and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes acute inflammation of tissues e.g. serum sickness - repeated exposure to animal (equine) serum (antitetanic) immuncomplexes are deposited in tissues - inflammation
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vessel wall - acute necrotizing vasculitis (fibrinoid necrosis) - thrombosis - ischemic necrosis vessel wall replaced by smudgy, pink material local form of IS - Arthus reaction (animal model - skin lesion) - localized area of tissue necrosis resulting from immune complex vasculitis - farmer's lungs (molds on hay) some types of glomerulonephritis systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE)
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IV. Delayed type of hypersensitivity (tuberculin-type) - cell mediated frequently granulomatous reaction (epithelioid cells) TBC, syphilis, leprosy
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course DBT 446 taught by Professor Dd during the Spring '10 term at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.

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Immune_disorders - Immune disorders immunity & immune...

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