PG-Pathology of Kidney - "View a negative experience...

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Unformatted text preview: "View a negative experience in your life like you'd look at a photo negative. A single negative can create an unlimited number of positive prints." Gerhard Gschwandtner Founder of "Selling Power" magazine Pathology of Kidney Disorders Pathology of Kidney Disorders Dr. Venkatesh M. Shashidhar Associate Professor of Pathology Fiji School of Medicine Anatomy-Kidney Anatomy-Kidney • Capillary basement membrane • Mesangium • Bowman capsule • Cells • Endothelial • Epithelial • Mesangial Components of Glomerulus: Components of Glomerulus: Anatomy of Kidney • Glomerulus • Tubules • Blood vessels • Interstitium • Collecting system • (Callices & Pelvis) Anatomic Compartments Anatomic Compartments • Excretion metabolic waste/drugs. • Water/fluid balance. • Electrolyte balance. • Acid-base balance. • Blood pressure. • Erythropoietin secretion. Kidney Functions: Kidney Functions: Anatomy of Kidney Note the positions of Glomerulus Loop of Henley PCT, DCT, CT Cortex, Medulla, Pelvis. JGA GFR Renin Angiotensin Blood Pressure Filtration Membrane: Filtration Membrane: Normal Kidney: Normal Kidney: • Developmental disorders • Glomerular diseases • Tubulo-interstitial diseases • Urinary stones • Obstructive uropathy • Tumors Kidney Diseases Kidney Diseases Agenesis – Potter syndrome Ectopia Fusion Dysplasia Simple cysts Polycystic kidney disease Congenital Anomalies: Congenital Anomalies: Horse Shoe Kidney Horse Shoe Kidney Double Ureter: Double Ureter: • Autosomal dominant (adult) (1:1,000) • Autosomal recessive (infantile (1:30,000) • Medullary cystic disease complex (1:10,000) • Medullary sponge kidney • Acquired cystic renal disease Polycystic kidney disease • Common kidney disease (1:1,000) • 10% of all transplant/dialysis patients • ADPKD-1 gene (polycystin) mutation 85% • Bilaterally enlarged kidneys (>3,000g) • Symptoms appear in adult life • Renal failure 5-10 years thereafter Autosomal Dominant PKD ADPKD: ADPKD: ADPKD: ADPKD: • Liver cysts (30%) • Splenic cysts (10%) • Pancreatic cysts (5%) • Cerebral aneurysms (20%) • Diverticulosis coli ADPKD Associated Conditions A Asymptomatic hematuria/proteinuria N Nephrotic syndrome N Nephritic syndrome U Urolithiasis R Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis I Interstitial and tubular diseases C Chronic renal disease Kidney Disorders – clinical. Kidney Disorders – clinical. “To be a great champion you must believe you are the best. If you’re not, pretend you are.” – Muhammad Ali Glomerular Disorders: Glomerular Disorders: Nephritic Hematuria Proteinuria Hypoalbuminemia Oliguria (GFR ↓ , Cr ↑ , BUN ↑ ) Edema (salt and water retention) Hypertension Nephrotic Proteinuria (“nephrotic range” >3.5g/24h) Hypoalbumimenia Edema Hyperlipidemia Lipiduria Introduction Synonyms : Incidence : Etiology : Clinical : Lab: Path: Clinical Course: Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis,...
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PG-Pathology of Kidney - "View a negative experience...

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