hale_Nonconfigurationality

hale_Nonconfigurationality - 牌 88 89 KEN HALE REMARKSN...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 牌 88 89 KEN HALE REMARKSN COMFIGURATIONALITY O 員荘 ;l@nfle).?gigm;lherily"jr; @thoughI " @" 5 ;: :jClrt L W vg; E i 員弓 i 卜 亭 ぎ き , 「 器。。茸 さ まき「 互三 まき ミ。 。 「 。 了。 。。 目 tween SupPose We def ne goVe ト而 eent aS a 「 e atiationWh Ch hDlds bethe head of a category and its immediate sisters -- let us て 丁 ateS ― (3) A" (1) X" @@ ネ X' ...X.. - ネ. X" On the one hand, the category A" Is governed by X' (the head of the domain defined by X"), while on the other hand, the category B" 1s governed by X (the head of the domain defined by X'). An Important property of conf'igurat-ional structures of the type represented by (3) 1s that they are partitioned into two domains of government ...X1 (2) 寸 below, are Itssisters. inwhich loperthathe ead distinct Inaconfiguration ttheregoverns domains government h two ike , To It anothergarguments inhead tructure toput among distinguishay,overnment such where w the can lexical aX), ofthe function ( s that 茸言 。 alfF ;:t4rnotfUnedbythe oE :rer infn " ; 卜吉ま号 匡 ぼだ坦餌品ぽ 言言言 巨葺呈員 iL ま 耳 口龍、 ばド: ヂ耳 可 "L"記 ミ 匡呈 a 百昌 ;a 言三 亘三 亘 ; , 葺呈荘 晶韮 出折 耳ぢ耳。ソ きよき 員荘茸 8; t,ort, まぜ器n卜弐do託L L 茸" 芋 ih 。 亡干 言言 。 豆喜干子 ミ 呈享言 百三 杢亘 亘耳葦盲 三 A common characteristic of conflgurational languages, not a defining criterion, but a fairly consistent property nonetheless, 寸 5 relat 寸 Ve 。 t h ne 寸コ 十 ユ S"S of g トユ nnnnat Ca 十 丁 O o「 gan 「 寸て at on 寸 一 ln par 亡寸 cu- lar, a relatively straightforward and consistent relationship between theta-role assignment and structural position. In short, in co insltructuralitslikewiseypically t onfigurational principles articulated and hus, assigned structuraltgcase theta-roles positions, anguages, aatossigned erms raimiaticalrestrucre ta turally ム defined positions. In this regard, non-conflgurational languages Mfeeling,greatersthatSo ra ertica1 are organization.by intuitively, 庇 s n characterized y much ""1OOseneSS"o t uY ・ sal principle of qrammar "clicks on", so to speak, 千 寸 川ミ in tw0-bar lan- duages; s tprinciple Is, really, utI wlanguages. gonotknowame principledown"0ne-bar Hke o this his what "shuts Inb ould t suggest that It is government a verb, say By contrast. In a non-conflguratlonal languaae, whose phrasal structures are "flat", as depicted In (4) below, government as dened above cannot serve to part t OOnon structure a ntntoL nct sub-phrasal domains of government ム and correspondingly, It cannot serve, In and of Itself, to distinguish among the arguments of 十寸 十 十 十三十 十 十 を , i: gitnen: i;iEa F Is (4* One could say here that both A" and B' are governed by X. That would follow from our definition of government. An alternative, however, Is to say that government simply does not operate 1n such structures. This seems a rather natural alternative in the concaption of government briefly outlined above ム in which government, 1n the absence of conflguratlonal structure, cannot distinguish among nominal arguments and In which, 1n fact, government Is en ツ tirely derivative of sisterhood. I will adopt this second alter ツ native. Now, in a conflgurational language 1t 1s possible ム and ム to say perhaps most In keeping with the nature of the type that such principles as abstract case assignment and theta-role L 三三三号 Bg taR : " " d 言 干 th rS regard)@ s 三, 呈 三 三三ミ 干 呈 L 。呈 oggge T: d E"f7tP(l.e 三 三三三三 。 安三 et 舌 早 三三 言 FO * 早 and theta- 川て e to the nonntna] express on (or NP) which It governs. This provides not only for distinctive case and theta-role assignments to subject and object, but 1t also イ as ミ十 , gn5 case ・ , , 卜 IHI MH 酬 ' CON of Government. Thus, for example, V, If non-finite, will fail to assign case to the subject; and V, 1f a past participle, will fail to assign case to Its object (cf. Chomsky, 1981, and references there for the essentials of the case theory adopted here In modified form). Moreover, it is probably possible to relate configurationality as here defined to the occasional failure of theta-role assignment to the subject position. One of the variants of the a assive only tneta-role,he thathich, pssume,nglish,example,fany,erbetoitssmall assignsfor inE one employs b w we 1t v and may che981, Sposition1i981,trelevant ofthe g @ehere1lause towel1, brnglish-typeanalyses e aSSt and headed pastarticiple p vBurzlo@ complementyhe p passive construction, ) for (see, T subject n E forel ls not ass face subJeCt In object position In 丁コ a ned a pa55 ヰイ , an 十 几 E 1 GU RAT 0 川虹斗 ・ 丁 hGet - 川]e@ and the トト functton ngngas 三 urて obtains uts the 十 aa- ト o Gee J e fFomn 寸ナStS Or g na] e u 十 aheF ヰ 丁 丁 oadtn at u a n geh ト ttn 寸 59 十十 O Sn 丁 a ト 十 n t Cn 丁 ユ 寸 寸寸れ 十 nu 口卜イ卯 t 十ノ 比 寸 n 十十 丁 a rPenaa nehn 作而叩マ 師如 d 十 トト Ot bePrC OaOt jM ユ bPn t @ 九e ユ htr 十ミ Sa r auOs -rt ehn )ユ SLw nN ) 丁十 n ユ OtCS7 ehOra 十 np aeS ・ tCtu ト O ne t 色川 廿 ヰ 北ね 十十十イ ハ ミ eebn FxOha』 n PeInW 二 Oaead @ 丁 PCP 十 Ohr ト r-e n e L 十 十 r iad-ic v that elow: sstructure doughly ert),plantlmlpear, pierce, S Letassume 'to tab, of Ws s In5) exica1-functional au epicted s d Hthe arlp'inke (b 寸 (5 寸 丁 @十 マ 丁十 寸 to ERG ABS 丁 寸 I I 千 干 A non-configuratlonal language, by contrast, configuration alone cannot account for differential case and theta-role assigna P , )PA IMI T ト menhus,on-conflguratlonalhe十斗 -@C-- T heLentifanalone (or, perhaps, language 川omponent a5e usescase@ IO t c tlSjnmean@ SrnnPi tformation by the categorlal ―― 上 子 component in languages with case-1ike post-positions , or enclitics, 卜 such as Ji'on"i andtheta-posltlonswhich a- O e asslanguages t apaneseposition with thehe ( e @Navajo).o a And, respecttothenot hetapo t a ononu gned 7 positions In non-conflgurational are follow. follow. ト 丁 寸三 ヰ 十 寸 三寸 , From these assumptions, It seems to me, certain predictions I will briefly outline some of these in the sections which 3 ・ Np- 而v印叩t Non-configuratlonallanguages apparently lack the transforFor e ampl Gptey tt ls d ff Cu t to Sho 卜 mat onal ru ee Of Np-m イ山 ent C 寸 丁 八 寸 寸 丁 ・ ・ that the passive, where -ft exists In a given non-conflguratlonal Rather, 1angua9e, involves the use of a movementtransformation. wfhat orttobe nvolved, @tsa7exaCalpass o the proposed typlca'11: )@p((1977),dndBre appears I by reidin soW(]9 erue s F (1975 C nannan ― ・ ば寸 アア てイ (1980), among other people. If this Is true, and I believe it 1s, it follows from the present conception of conf1gurat10na11tynd a ヰ 三 from Geta- oftheoassive on-thetathebBiew p a cased raising) v ositlon t (and n I cas this framework, non-con igurafTona anguages cou d not have moV 印enent@ Since t Wou d le ad to a V]o ]at]on ld ニ フ Of the the 廿 aa-Cr 一 move enen ntrom ononetheta-poS ヰ十十 COn to anothe 「 川uPd resu t 川十 assignment of two theta-roles to a sloySs nominal expression う 丁 丁 4. 丁 NP丁た 十 er n 丁 1f theta-roles are not assigned structurally in non-config- case .hatpln.E: : L *g F :F: 昂餐 ;# : 員 ぎ三 干 ま里三草 ミ桂耳 ; 。 。 faCtu Ilnk; (Gh R:t re ; ER :g L o 群苛 、 ま廿三 。 韮三 まき・ お折 ミ 三。 , (6)f'the ::E snF itotrangaro0.' AST) 器 E peared he 8k ; 耳卜 :g 低 舌 man ま 三科 窃ト晶 (6') {NGARRKA1, (x1,y^PANTIRNI HAHIRR1-', Now, 1n many non-conflguratlonal languages, On the The element PR0. : 員三言 員 号互卍 三ミ 晶 。き卜 員ぎ 言干三 董 「とま 茸三 喜 三干言ミ言 鐸ミ category C. Or. to put It another way, an overt nominal beartng case C receives Its theta-role by being associated with an argument position bearing the Unking register C. This association may be thought of as a special sort of "binding", which I will n0呈ミ言 ・ 十 ・ | 廿 sentences without oImplied" rgumentswithnermorethereully " vert bya verbム issing,tlo o on-0vertrguments nominal m 1.e ra east ofム a f the .o , n a grammatica1, In (7) below: as (7) (a) Ngarrka-ngkupu 'The an pan-rnu m speared' u 亡 寸ナ・ 95 94 KEN HALE REMARKSN CONFIGURATIONALITY O "g IngNto日ぎ 舘: 肝ganguage?肝!; On t t 巧肝! 三L茸 taboVe,dtabqut ntgu; g that exist in non-confi'guratlonal l a FF 室吾巨匡言 。 まミ 三 L L FOOTNOTES 丁 , ; lsn4s n- ima.nanXL L 干呈巨喜盲呈 巨 「 百章琵 言言言 妻耳呈三言 戸三量 言言言 匡 言言言 干 二言言 亘言号 言言呈目星 言 戸言 言 三 言 LE ; e - ; n F F ?; a o a h-mo characterized, Therefore, iff hethetypeJuStnnon-configuratlonal t eena eex e 1ta movement eads he onbeanguage wouldh ilnto S卜 er 安監 量 言言 5i5 yes. 言匡 ラ 蓮 呈き ea イ日 川 川 照詔目E 。 ;pP g t 目 , ば,, 葺琵謹茸 叩卜十た寸コ "fR 茸 肝ま 。 蓮 弩 二目き耳 琵註 elieve 琵t巨巨呈善 b 晶き 「 he an- I5 non-A- ・ 琵蓮 き, 。 日t t 低" 装" ミ把龍ま 器 。 。 。 ,ま。 。 北hti 。 nn 亡 寸ミ寸 「 t f 0 叩叶 ra 十 du eto tnF トud n nce 而 十 tSL pear0 na 十 t ト Ht ト 丁ト H a9 ト 丁 t9b0e lO 寸 5B@ 3 川 川 n a- n d9 ア ise: lfinnB;n 9 meI@aa: Oamong nd .anne.d;o:;:lWeSly S m : thgthoseo Oe yo do rab a;oWa t: t lGLbUt ; ynoI]on1 c eceS e derS@ n E: : rIrr ;K ;g nten.eaAndh;th gy iY;7;ftnLm Re f;tqhpea;sotqht,sti f ;atf eDr :WL;! 醍 n a point of view of their originators ゴ号 イ 三 ミ き三 丁 ミ去 ま 十号 , 干 三 手早 よ¥ 「 Ao 早手 丁 v ト Ft et 2d B 二二三 ま 三三 三 , 三卜十 三三三三 三三 ト三 十 店三 。 羊三 と 「 き三 ミ 言言 「 三干 て 茸肯 ミ「 REFERENCES 而 。 an re L 『 An on 0n ・ )C 9e 7v 0S B Jn ・ 十 L @0 h Tn Cee L 一 8 Lf れ 言ト三 ミ, ミ与きミ T @ 三 三ミ 三 け 9d 十 丁ユ It na ユれ イ L0 I ト十 ナ a0 nn 払 C L 十 C 寸十 a Tah7 L0 ユ 0pra yp en 廿ア Au rb ユ e t Carter, R. (1976) Some Unking regularities. 丁卜 kd 0 90 0eB 山 く ]nl R 丸帥 ミミ 寸 ba L7a re da ・ 斗 ・R L 寸丁 川 hp 5 山 寸 going.' れ So far as I am aware, none of the Ideas I win set forth below エ foI"trace") sentence verb: gap(sOzed r nthe avajo the below, Npreceding (8) enfcedded there l ユ bHa e ト 火 aa ユ丁。eea n tCh.L na tt 丁 @e eN 丁 て e ・ ハ 十 5 w け 丁 p r , Lr ut y ユ e 亡 十二 heb 1a ・ 言目言言言 , , 。。挺ア目 ,。 (1981) PubHcations. anRL 川n 十 十 d an Ig 十 s a tn 十 OE , n Unpublished s m nh bS ar CaOn JT ミ十 。肌 ns Lectures on Governmentand Bindmq FOr 寸 5 Farmer, A. (1980) On The Interaction of Morphology and Syntax._ H I T d 5Se れaUon ・ , う ・ Freldin, R. (1975) Theanalysis of passives. Language1.384-405 5 Hale, K. (1967) PreHmlnary remarks on Walb-1r.1 ranmar. G I 丁 川s れ・ rgetL:SR; : ajbl@nd ;Ed :g!P: bym g; a ng き ま ¥ぎ 三 まト言 き 「 三 寸ト ニ三 nCorre5ponds 科 , ・ Unpublished aics.anner apanesePp. ingutst nd RWorkingssues In Y. (AM.1.T. heoretical 1Otsu, 1980)oJ apers tructure. F (emarksI s In apanese . eds.) 1Linguistics. T phrase L P n J 85-203. n 96 REMARKSN CONFIGURATIONALITY O K. (1981) On the Position of Walbirl Base. Indiana University Linguistics Hale, In a Typology of the Club Hale,., E.Ptitle). (approximate K and erkins (forthcoming) X-Bar Navajo Theory and JaCkendof L untax: I R ress p [1977) れ 廿, 丁 , 三 ・ ・ OfphraSe ― Structure "― ‥ Kaufman, E. (1974) Navajo spatial enclitics: rightward movement, (.inouistic InQUiry, Lapointe, S. (1980) of of unbounded 5.507-532 a case A Theory of Grammatical Agreement. University Massachusetts Amherst ム dissertation. .H.1976)Remarks 1-22. ( on oreference. Analysis c Ljngu-1st-ic Narantz, A. (1981) HI T d ・ ・ Plater0, ・ う P. (1978) NI T d ・ Reinhart, め・ R RI sSertat J れ ・ ・ ・ I ・ て 丁 , d er 十ユミ ・ ・ The Syntactic Domainof Anaphora 亡 a 亡 jon .T.dissertation.on aini^Mes (1976) Constraints V InSyntax. T (l98 MI T d , On sSertaMon Schauber, E. (1979) stoWel] づ Hissing Noun Phrases In Navajo T. (1976) , On the Nature of Graiimatlcal Relations ・ ・ ・ う Masow, T. (1977) 丁 ) The Syntax and Semantics of Questions -in Or 寸 s5ertat う gn 十 On ユ Of phra ユ e StruCture Transformations and the Lexicon. T. Wasow, and A. Akmajian (eds.) Press In Culicover, P., Formal Syntax. Whitman, J. (1979) Scrambled, over easy, or sunny side Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society 15.342-52. Academic up? ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course LING 341 taught by Professor Masyayoshida during the Fall '10 term at Northwestern.

Page1 / 6

hale_Nonconfigurationality - 牌 88 89 KEN HALE REMARKSN...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online