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Majewicz - 38 T S Wicherkiewicz Berlinska D(1990 Slazacy na...

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Unformatted text preview: 38 T. S. Wicherkiewicz Berlinska, D. (1990). Slazacy na Slasku Opolskim w éwietle badar'i socjologicznych. Die Schlesier in Opolc*Schlesien im Lichte soziologischer Forschungen. 1n Gérny Slqsk jako pomost pamiedzy Polakami i Niemcami. Oberschlesien als Briicke :wischen Polen and Deutschen, 55—~87. Opole: Instytut Slaski. m (1991 ). Procesy demokratyzacyjne w Polsce a mniejszoéc’: niemiecka na Slasku Opolskim. Przeglad Zachodni 2, 25—42. Bielak, F. (1976). Baza rekrutacyina Niemieckiego Towarzystwa Spoleczno~Kulturalnego i zakres jego oddzialywania. Warsaw: MSW. Bolduan, T. (1992). Losy spoleozne i polityczne Slowincow w Klukach w latach 1945-1975. Préba oceny. In Studio Kaszubska-Slowinskie. Materialy : II Konferencji Slowitiskiej (Leba l [43.05.] 992), J. Treder (ed.), 9—31. Leba: Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie. Born, 1.; and Dickgiesser, S. (1989). Polen. In Deulschsprachige Minder/when. Ein Uberblick ilber den Stand der Forschung far 27 Lander, 161—172. Mannheim: Institut flit Deutsche Sprache. Dziadul, J. (1990). Slnzaczka kontra Schlesier. Polityka 8. Lintner, E. (1991). Die Deutschen in Ostmitteleuropa im ersten nichtkommunistischen Jahr. Deutschland Archiv 8. MajeW/cz, AR; and Weber/(lemon 7? (I990). Net/one] minority languages in media and education in Poland (a preliminary report). In Faun/z International Coherence on Minority Languages, D. Gorter et al. (eds.), 149—174. Clevedon. Avon: Multilingual Matters. -—; and Wicherkiewicz, T. (1991—1992). Minority Rights Abuse in Communist Poland and Inherited Issues. Stgszew: International Institute of Ethnolinguistic and Oriental Studies. Rautenberg, H.~W. (1991). Deutsche (Deutschstéimmige) in Polen -— eine nicht anerkannte 3‘- Volksgruppe. In Kolloquium dber Politik, Kultur and [dentita‘t in Geschic/ue und Gegenwurt bei den Deutschen Bevdlkerungsgruppen [m Ausluna'. Referale. A, Ritter (ed.), 99—124. Flensburg: Institut fur Regionale Forschung und Information im Deutschen Grenzverein. Sakson, A. (1990). Mazurzy —— spolecznosé pograniczu, Poznan: Instytut Zachodni. w(1991). Mniejszos'é niemiecka na tle innych mniejszoéci narodowych we wspélczesnej Polsce. Przeglad Zachodni 2, 1-23. Tumilowicz, B. (1989). Niemcy u nas so! Polilyka 25. Kashubian choices, Kashubian prospects: a minority language situation in northern Poland ALFRED E. MAJEWlCZ Mon-a -—- to je delrza Ie‘tlu: Chit) .lé’ slrucyl, strat'yl sebie! [Language -- it is the soul of the people: one who has1ost it. has lost onese1f‘.) Jaromira Labudda Kashubian poet. born 1955 Abstract At least 20 groups, currently living in Poland or having lived there from World War [1 until quite recently, can definitely be classified as ethnic minorities. All of them have some language characteristic that distin- guishes their respective ethnic identity and marks their separateness from others. Kashubs, inhabiting the Pomerania (mainly Gdansk and Slupsk Provinces) region, constitute one of the most populous of these groups ( about 250,000~300,000), and they use an ethnolect officially claimed to be a dialect of Polish ”most distant from the literary standard. ” Although the group is predominantly rural, the ethnolect is not restricted to everyday conversations in family situations but is becoming more and more extens— ively used in media ( print and radio and TV broadcasts), education, and religious activities. Due to the drastic sociopolitical changes the last decade has seen in Europe, a strong cultural and national revival movement is taking place among them. This includes the social phenomenon, composed of a fierce campaign to upgrade the status of their ethnolect ( to that of the oflicially recognized separate language), unique in the whole country. This paper presents the linguistic situation of the Kashubians and its prospects, with a focus on the most recent developments. ' 73 . .v‘t‘vA-zn r‘ 939;? 0165-2516/96/0120—0039 Int'I. J. Soc: Lung. [20 ( 1996), pp. 39~53 § © Walter de Gruyter A. E Majewzcz ni'orities live in Poland. All of them have some “sitie that distinguishes their ethnic identity and marks from others, although not all of them constitute lan- cf. Majewicz and Wicherkiewicz 1990). Iig these groups, the Kashubs, is specific in this regard: it may ' red 11 language minority or not, depending on the language '1‘; lest of Polish or a separate language. e Kashubs inhabit an area of about 6,000 square kilometres on the 1m coast of the Baltic Sea between Gdansk and Slupsk. This strip .1: 50km wide and about 130 km long, along a line that joins ‘Ehe towns or Czersk, Chojnice and Czluchéw, includes the import- ant Kashubian centers of Wejherowo, Kartuzy (often labelled “the Kashubian capital”), Koscierzyna, and Gdansk The territory is referred Ito as the Kashuby Region (Cassubia), the Kashubian Lakeland, or -" Pomerania d'paleoethnologically, the Kashubs are said to be direct t ' of the Pomeranians, a Slavic people that inhabited the Baltic teen. Ehe Vistula and the Oder rivers, perhaps as far westward . e, in the early Middle Ages, and who long constituted a serious threat to the ancestors of what later became the Polish nation (cf Labuda , also Berzyszkowski 1982,1983). "able statistics have become available only recently as result of a , ex- sociological field survey carried out in the late 1980s and subse- quently analyzed (Latoszek 1990, 1990-1993; cf. also Synak 1993). Prior to that time, due to the official policy of‘ ‘the monoethnicity of the Polish state-’1’»). (Cf. Majewicz and Wicherkiewicz 19914992), all questions related to minority and ethnicity were as a rule excluded from census question- naires,. and Kashubs were not recognized as an ethnic or language minor- his extended to the exclusion of entries such as “Kashubs,” Shubi-an Region/ethnolect” from reference books. According to this ' uxvey, the geographically compact Kashubian population (long 1; d-at 200, 000 or less) numbers 330, 000 and is as large as 500, 000 .1 ‘shubs are included, thus constituting the largest minority group country. Kashubian choices, Kashubian prospects 41 nal culture and its traditional values. Their ethnic identity is strongly manifested, but at the same time they have always stressed their pro— Polish orientation (in contrast to the pro-German orientation of groups of Mazurian, Varmian [Ermlander], or Silesian extraction). This is best seen in the frequently cited declaration formulated by one of the pillars of Kashubian literature, H.J. Derdowski: Nie ma Kaszé'b bez Polonii a bez Kaszé'b Polsczz' ‘There is no Poland without Cassubia and no Cassubia without Poland’. Similar sentiments have been expressed by another .dominant Kashubian figure, Rev. B. Sychta: “Cassubia does not belong to Poland, it constitutes (part of) it,” and in what is considered the Kashubian “anthem,” where every stanza stresses ties with Poland. It is a typical “nested” or “embedded” ethnic identity. The ethnolect and its status Except for a small protestant community of “Leba Kashubs/Slovincians,” which until the early 19505 lived on the lakes Lebsko/Leba and Gardno and was very strongly germanized, the Kashubs use a West Slavic vernac~ ular defined by many as “a dialect of Polish, most distinct from the standard.” Another group, growing in number, with increasing frequency refer to it as a separate language, closely related to Polish. ‘ The ethnolect serves as the principal means of communication in the community. Approximately 60 percent of the population within the area of Kashubian self—identification (i.e. where Kashubian dialects are spoken) use it with varying intensity, from “every day,” through “fre- quently,” “rarely,” o “sporadically. ” The usage has traditionally been ‘limited to “informal,” “domestic,” “i 1n-family” situations, to contacts :between family members, neighbors, inhabitants of the same village, iworking team, etc. Usage outside the community was practically nonexis- tent. Its use was also much more typical of adults; children, except for n-family situations, were usually ashamed or afraid of using the viKashubian tongue. The main restraining factor was the low social status f the ethnolect. -' The status of Kashubian has always been a political, not a linguistic, atter. It is only the recent dramatic changes in Poland, and changes in "the social consciousness (caused by such factors as open borders, the etivities of the Polish Pope, international conventions on minority rights nd their propagation [of Majewicz 1992a], involvement of intellectuals n the process of upgrading the status of minority ethnolects, etc.) that ave gradually but steadily made room for harbingers of a brighter future or the ethnolect. *4-2 A. E. .Majewicz "Swnoer-doubteithat there is currently both a strong aspiration and thatzaims, a-t upgrading the social and linguistic status of the ‘ , -‘-the Kashubs. N0 similar phenomenon can be observed of- Roland. seductive debate on whether Kashubian is a dialect of serves the status of a separate language was triggered one , is. years ago by the publication of a Kashubian dictionary (Ramutt 11 Which Kashubian was specifically indicated as a separate Ian- 1‘21 ei’disginctive from Polish. This was subsequently blown up into the iious “Kashubian question” (cf., with caution, Brock 1968) , ergi‘ng into obscurity, and then reemerging with the passing of time ”and Changing demand, the question was revived with unexpected force in 1980 by Jan Trepczyk, the most prominent Kashubian poet living at that time. This writer, composer, singer, and story-teller, in an article written in Kashubian, spoke in defence of his endangered ethnolect, which he regarded as artificially deprived of its due status, and argued prccisely its unjust status that had gradually pushed Kashubian Kashubs» Such pronouncements are by no means sporadic. gas .okenz-K‘ashubian seems incomprehensible to an untrained Polish ear, 1 an‘d-idifliculties with written texts, although varying according to the text, , 13,0 substantial: for example, A. Majkowski’s novel Zécé i przigode‘ asa,...>.au;masterpieee of Kashubian literature, required a translation ,Relish. .Such translations, which are not only possible but also ‘esirabietand: successful, constitute a strong argument for upgrading its s impossible to translate dialectal texts into a standard literary guage. without the complete loss of their essence —— the accumulation " :dialectal features (cf Majewicz 1992a: 35). ‘th‘er such argument is the degree to which Kashubian may be "expressing ideas beyond the everyday topics of unsophisticated 1k .«Reminiscences of captivity in Nazi Germany (Fikus 1981), , 1an:;t~ranslation of an academic text on the history of Kashubs da 92), comments on current events in Poland and other writings r'v,anous_.d1sc1p11nes 1n the Kashubian monthly Pomerania, sermons 'i'n churches, the Kashubian Bible, speeches at ceremonies, serve as examples of this applicability. its Kashubian choices, Kashubian prospects 43 Labuda’s (19814982) Kashubian~Polish-Kashubian dictionary in turn may serve as an illustration of the lexical distance between the two ethnolects: although its compiler tried to exclude words identical in both languages, the Kashubian-Polish part comprises about 10,000 entries. - The status of Kashubian and, in turn, its future will ultimately depend on the increasing awareness of the Kashubs themselves. As was written in the invitation to a conference on the status of Kashubian held in Gdansk in October 1991 (cf. Breza 1992), the Kashubian community, being of the opinion that the issue of an academic dispute [i.e. that status] cannot have a negative impact upon practical conclusions, implements a policy of accomplished facts, testifying to the vitality of the Kashubian ethnolect, such as a TV language course, university classes, primary and secondary school education within the framework of regional education System, language standardization publications, poetic and story-telling contests, literary seminars for writers, holy masses in Kashubian, Bible translations, semi- nars aiming at improving and standardizing the Kashubian orthography. 1: Literature . Literature in Kashubian and its long tradition are the Kashubs’ strongest ard in their pursuit of upgrading the status of the ethnolect. Writing in ashubian dates back to 1402 (‘2), and the first complete book translated tinto what may be labelled as Kashubian, a Protestant song-book, was rinted in Gdansk in 1586 (cf. Neureiter 1973; Popowska-Taborska 1987: 9 11.). A considerable revival took place in the mid~nineteenth century .ith Florian Ceynowa (18174881), the “father of Kashubian literature,” ollowed by another revival associated with the “Young Kashubian” ovement after about 1909 (in 1912 a “Young Kashub Society” was Ounded). Works such as the epic poems by Hieronim Jarosz Derdowski 18524902) or the above-mentioned 565-page novel Remus’s Life and Adventures (1938, reprinted 19744976, and printed again in 1988 in .ermany with a German translation) by Aleksander Majkowski 1876—1938), the “flagship” of the “Young Kashub” movement, are the pride of the nation. In addition, works by Leon Heyke (18854939), 311 Karnowski (18864939), Jozef Ceynowa (19054991), Bernard ychta (1907—1982), Jan Trepczyk (1907—1989), Franciszek Grucza 114993), Leon Roppel (19124978), and Jan Rompski (19134969) re also held in high esteem. Most important is that this generation of ‘rolific writers has eminent middle-aged followers (Jan Zbrzyca, b. 1929; da,z,::b~. 21955; Stanislaw Janke, b. 1956). The literary “ashubian, with works counted in the hundreds and a hittben-of authors, must be considered enormous in light ableicondiitions for intellectual activities, the small intellec- cnesulting from ages of educational neglect, and similar .fiact‘ors. The development of such factors has been so vigorous mesh-ave drawn a gloomy perspective of a literature without -‘ by: far not all speakers of Kashubian can read it (cf. below). he’roWo the Museum of Kashubian-Pomeranian Literature and ith a rich library and a reading room, the only such minority especially dramas) circulated in manuscript. This figure is only with the number of Jewish publications in Hebrew and dish 78 titles between 1944 and 1986). Today, of all minority ' ' Poland Kashubian is the one most widely used in print eureiter 1982,1991 [1978]; Drzezdzon 1986; Samp 1985; also the gies Neur‘eiter 1973; Lipski 1990). ashu'bian press also has a long tradition of dating back to - eynowar’si'fleasure of the Kashubian Language (1866—1868). There " toall .Kashubs, others local. Recent years have witnessed an ‘owreturn ’to prestigious titles from the past: Gazeta Kartuska, resumed~1989; Gryf Koscierski, 1932—1939, resumed 1990; 1 ,1. .1933— 1939, 1945~l947, resumed in February 1992. -’many towns and communes (gminy); there were 28 m y“ titles of importance, some ephemeral, some long-lasting, some enaissanee of the Kashubian local press, with an evident " we rzym 1869—1939, resumed as a bi-weekly in December 90842912, 1921-1922, 1925, 1931—1934, resumed as a paper elf-government; or one of the most important newspapers es: in 19.92. A number of titles have been initiated by ,g‘them'avl'eaflet Switk (1989—1990), which was replaced Hm, published since May 1990 by the Kashub Student nrrgffiornorania in Gdansk and addressed to all Kashubs; and Kashubian choices, Kashubian prospects 45 Zwénk Kasze‘bsczi, published since December, 1986, by the students of the Theological Seminary in Pelplin. The most important title remains the bilingual monthly Pomerania, in print since 1963 when it took over the role of a very good biweekly .Kasze'bé ( 1957—1961 ). It is one of the best regional journals in the country. Material for children appears in the press only sporadically, but there are children’s books with poetry and fairy tales. Distribution The distribution of Kashubian publications is relatively efficient, with one special book~and-souvenir store in Gdansk and separate stands in book stores in Bytéw, Gdynia, Puck, and Wejherowo. The main outlet, however, is the well-developed network of Kashubian Association (ZKP) cells throughout the entire Kashubian region. Orthograph y n spite of the long tradition of writing and publishing in Kashubian, rthography remains a problem that causes controversy in the com- munity. The different spellings and dialectical varieties used in writing re perceived as obstacles to the creation of a literary standard. Standardization has been proposed several times by individual writers cf. Breza and Treder 1984: 55—59), the latest being Breza and Treder 1984), sponsored and promoted by the Kashubian Association. A similar rthography still used was proposed in 1931 by A. Labuda for Gryf published 1939). Some authors, nevertheless, still insist on their own 'tthographies. Two translations of the New Testament published recently of. below) also difier in orthography. This orthographic variation has nduced Edward Breza, professor of linguistics specializing in Kashubian, o appeal for acceptance of the Breza and Treder (1984) orthographic ules until a new system is eventually developed (Pomerania 4/91: 22). "ce the midweighteenth century, Kashubian theater has had a rich 0rd of ensembles (e.g. theatres in Wejherowo and Wiele founded pectively in 1925 and 1926), performances, and dramatic texts (especi- . ywbetween the wars) and has experienced a renaissance with the founda- ma'. 3:; ‘46 2A. E.. Majewz'cz- ”subgroups (e.g. in Brusy in October 1992, Kolonia in 1991, re" 'kowi'ce) and children’s ensembles. Most texts remain in o, ~n(material in Kashubian about Kashubian theater ,am‘emni'a 1/94). ‘rm‘s of language promotion Other fo‘nns include book exhibitions, poetry recitals, story-telling and so’ri‘gx contests such as the annual contest of poetry and prose “Rodno mow-.af’held since 1971, which in 1993 involved 1,500 school children. ‘S’pe‘eeh contests (motto: bé' ne zabé‘c mowe' starkéw ‘not to forget the language of the grandpas’) were initiated in Puck in 1992 to incite “‘«iiitenestJn Kashubian literature and correct language usage,” a literary contest! for school children in which the prize works were printed, etc. Song-books and records have been published, and at least seven cassettes with songs and one with story-telling have appeared on the market redefitlw‘Breviously, no such forms existed. Children’s ensembles have also‘beenibunded. There has been only one feature film produced with y'd-i‘a‘lo'gue-in'Kiashubian (Kaszébé’, 1971). .5A ‘ent‘irelyxnew development is a half-hour Kashubian—language tele— odné. zemia from Gdansk every second Sunday, including a course in , eslanguage, Gédéme po kaszé’bsku. A weekly one-hour radio transmis- sion in Kashubian, Na botach (2' w borach, also from Gdansk, is a revival ofibroadcasting in Kashubian from Town in the 19305. iRel‘z‘gz‘on ‘vii-ifillmbian religious songs are abundant, but church services in the ethno- ,1ec”,t;are,?a recent phenomenon and are still controversial. Masses are ,cu’ -‘en.tly said once a month in eight churches, every second month in ‘ ' hutch, three times a year in another church, and occasionally at votiprominent Kashubs, accompanying important events, etc. _.0' different translations from the New Testament, one (the four ls)‘:“by---t=‘he Rev. F. Grucza and the other (the entire New Testament) Golabk, appeared in print in 1992 and 1993 respectively. The Rev. titanslation of the regular parts of the Holy Mass is highly andt‘used during services. A Kashubian prayerbook is also being " .iiéashub students at the Theological Seminary in Pelplin. 1’8 :Mi‘otk (1991) is a preacher, honored for his sermons with mghestrKashubian decorations, who until 1986 opposed the introduc- Kashubian choices, Kashubian prospects 47 ‘3jtion of the ethnolect to liturgy. His selection of 25 homilies may serve ' “both as a model for followers and as an example of the extended applica-A bility o...
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