Tsujimura07_Ch4_Morph - Morphology 1 Parts of Speech...

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Morphology 1 Parts of Speech Categories 4 Morphology words have syntactic labels which are essential in forming phrases and sentences ~7nta.x. These labels are called parts of speech categories or simply categories. we will see below, it is often the case that a single property cannot define a category. For this reason, it is important to keep in mind that a cluster of characteristics eventually leads to the identification of each category. 1.1 Nouns How do we identify words? In spoken language words are pronounced c tinuously. There are no pauses between words. This is true in both English ~h~ first category we take up is nouns. Nouns can co-occur with demonstratives Japanese. In English writing, however, words are spelled individually and sp such as kono "this" and sono "that", as in kono hana "this flower" and sono is given between words, at least to some degree providing us with a means hen "that book". identify words. In Japanese writing, on the other hand, there is no space betw Nouns can take noun modifiers which recede them, and these nounmodifiers words, so we cannot rely on such a visual device. take the no (the Genitive Case particle). For example, consider the The question of how to identify words perhaps boils down to a more fun phrases in (I).' mental question, "What is a word?" This is indeed a very difficult questi For example, ask yourself whether waterbed, fortune-teller, salad dressing, boo () a Taroo-no hon return, teapot, and round-trip each constitute a single word. Also, ask your Taro-Gen book whether don't, wouldn't, wanna, gonna, I'm. and you're are each one word "Taro's hook'' two words. You will immediately realize it is not always straightforward b. kinoo-no sinbun identify words. A more extreme example is seen in an American Indian langu yesterday-Gcn newspaper Potawatomi. A string of sound kwapmuknanuk means "They see us" (cf. From "yesterday's paper" and Rodman 1993). Is it a word, a sentence, or something else? c. Tookyoo-no tizu Despite the lack of clues with which to identify words in written Japanese Tokyo-Gcn map well as for spoken language in general, native speakers know the words of "a map of Tokyo" language. Knowing a word means knowing the sound and meaning of the wo d. scnsoo-no hanasi this, in turn, relies on various sorts of information. Such information prima war-Gen story comes from four different areas: phonology, morphology, syntax, and semanti "a story about the war" The speaker knows how the word is pronounced (phonological information) a can figure out what it means (semantic information). She or he is also awar Hon "book", sinbun "newspaper", tizu "map", and hanasi "story" in these whether a word consists of more than one meaningful element (morpholog examples are nouns that are modified by a preceding noun. In (la), for instance, information), and knows how a word is used in a larger context such as i the noun hon "book" is modified by the preceding noun, i.e. Taroo. In order phrase or in a sentence (syntactic information). Granting that any attemp
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Tsujimura07_Ch4_Morph - Morphology 1 Parts of Speech...

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