Chapter15_LEC - Chemistry A Molecular Approach 1st Ed...

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Chapter 15 Acids and Bases 2008, Prentice Hall Chemistry: A Molecular Approach , 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 Properties of Acids sour taste react with “active” metals 2 Al + 6 HCl →2 AlCl 3 + 3 H 2 corrosive react with carbonates; marble, baking soda, chalk, limestone CaCO 3 + 2 HCl CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O change color of vegetable dyes blue litmus turns red react with bases- forms salts & water
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Common Acids Chemical Name Formula Uses Strength Nitric Acid HNO 3 explosive, fertilizer, dye, glue Strong Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 explosive, fertilizer, dye, glue, batteries Strong Hydrochloric Acid HCl metal cleaning, food prep, ore refining, stomach acid Strong Phosphoric Acid H 3 PO 4 fertilizer, plastics & rubber, food preservation Moderate Acetic Acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 plastics & rubber, food preservation, Vinegar Weak Hydrofluoric Acid HF metal cleaning, glass etching Weak Carbonic Acid H 2 CO 3 soda water Weak Boric Acid H 3 BO 3 eye wash Weak
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Structures of Acids binary acids HCl, HF oxy acids H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 carboxylic acids - COOH group H C 2 H 3 O 2 , H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 only the first H in the formula is acidic
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Properties of Bases aka -alkalis taste bitter alkaloids = plant product that is alkaline often poisonous solutions feel slippery change color of vegetable dyes different color than acid red litmus turns blue react with acids to form ionic salts & water neutralization
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 Common Bases Chemical Name Formula Common Name Uses Strength sodium hydroxide NaOH lye, caustic soda soap, plastic, petrol refining Strong potassium hydroxide KOH caustic potash soap, cotton, electroplating Strong calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 slaked lime cement Strong sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 baking soda cooking, antacid Weak magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 milk of magnesia antacid Weak ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, {NH 3 (aq)} ammonia water detergent, fertilizer, explosives, fibers Weak
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 Structure of Bases most ionic bases contain OH ions NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 some contain CO 3 2- ions CaCO 3 NaHCO 3 molecular bases ( amine groups) react with H +
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Arrhenius Theory Acid - ionizes in water, produce H + Base: dissociates in water, Produces OH ions H + ions produce complex ions, mainly hydronium ion, H 3 O+ H + + H 2 O H 3 O + minor amounts of H + with multiple water molecules, H(H 2 O) n + the H+ & OH- produce H 2 acid + base → salt + water HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) → NaCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l )
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9 Problems with Arrhenius Theory does not explain ; NH 3 , Na 2 CO 3 or Na 2 O - form basic solutions – even though they
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Chapter15_LEC - Chemistry A Molecular Approach 1st Ed...

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