Chapter_7_Notes - Chapter 7 Democracy in Distress: The...

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Democracy in Distress: The Violence of Party Politics, 1788-1800 Introduction : In this chapter we will examine the many trials and tribulations associated with the creation of our new federal government under the recently adopted Constitution. This discussion includes the Hamiltonian financial system, the developing conflict (and conflicting views of America’s future) between Hamilton and Jefferson, and emergence of our first political parties. Foreign policy will also be an important part of this examination, and foreign policy difficulties would carry over into the administration of Washington’s successor, John Adams. The presidency of Adams would be noted for the XYZ affair and the odious Alien and Sedition Acts and culminated with the victory of Jefferson and the Jeffersonian-Republicans in the election of 1800. Whew! A lot of crucial material in this chapter, agreed? George Washington Enjoyed near universal respect and carried himself with dignity and reserve as president. He created a strong, independent presidency; resisted congressional efforts to restrict executive powers. Executive Departments Congress created executive departments to help run the affairs of that branch of the new government. Henry Knox, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton the first secretaries of these departments. Congress also organized the judicial branch through the Judiciary Act of 1789 and passed a tariff law to provide the new government with a dependable source of revenue. Jefferson vs. Hamilton Hamilton: a charming, extremely intelligent man who advocated a strong national government and he refused to be bound by the strict wording of the Constitution. Did not have the personal magnetism of Hamilton but had a strong desire to promote the democratic principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence. Gradually differences emerged over such things as commerce vs. farming, banking policy, and the role of the common people in determining public policy; Jefferson had far more faith than Hamilton in the ability of the common people to determine public policy. Hamilton sought to promote his goals through a series of reports submitted to
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Chapter_7_Notes - Chapter 7 Democracy in Distress: The...

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