Chapter_16_Notes - Chapter 16 The Agony of Reconstruction...

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Chapter 16 The Agony of Reconstruction Introduction : In this chapter we conclude our course by examining the highlights of the reconstruction period, beginning with Lincoln’s wartime efforts and culminating with the election of 1876 and the origins of the Jim Crow system of racial segregation and discrimination in the South. Robert Smalls His life and career represent the important place that black men had for a while during the war and reconstruction periods. After serving in the Union Navy, he had a successful career as a businessman and politician in South Carolina. As a member of Congress he sponsored legislation to help blacks in the Beaufort, SC area buy property. In his later years, he served as collector of customs for the port of Beaufort, thanks to Republican Party patronage, but he and other black men no longer had the influence that they had for a brief while during reconstruction. The President and Congress Clash Reconstruction was really two problems in one: restoring the southern states to the Union and finding a place for the recently freed slaves in American society. Lincoln favored a minimalist approach to the problem of reconstruction, restoring the southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. In December 1863, Lincoln announced his plan which became known as the Ten Percent Plan: whenever 10% or more of the eligible voters in a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, they could organize a new state government. A full pardon also offered to all southerners except certain Confederate leaders. For various reasons, members of Lincoln’s Republican Party in Congress opposed his plan: it said nothing about black rights; they feared the reemergence of the old ruling class in the South; they believed Congress, not the president, should control reconstruction. Lincoln’s strongest critics were the Radical Republicans who favored giving the right to vote to black males. Congress set forth its own plan of reconstruction in the Wade-Davis Bill, passed in July 1864, requiring that at least 50% of the voters take an oath of loyalty. Lincoln refused to sign and gave the bill a pocket veto, and at the time of Lincoln’s the president and Congress were deadlocked on the reconstruction issue.
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Andrew Johnson at the helm An ill-educated and stubborn man, Johnson, elected vice president with Lincoln in 1864, announced his own plan of reconstruction for the states that had not organized governments under the Lincoln plan. The ordinances of secession must be declared illegal, the Confederate debt
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Chapter_16_Notes - Chapter 16 The Agony of Reconstruction...

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