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Unformatted text preview: Race and Ethnicity Peopling of the United States 9 No discussion of race can proceed without reference to systems of racial classification, processes by which people are assigned to racial categories that are implicitly or explicitly ranked on a scale of social worth. I n theUnite S s pare and the biological d tate nts ir childre can beclassifie as diffe nt race n d re s. Ray Elfers DoD photo by: TSGT CURT EDDINGS U.S. Senate Hawaii-born Barack Obama was the son of Kenyan immigrant Barack Hussein Obama Sr. and Kansas-born A nn Dunham. As Obama described them he was “black as pitch” and she was “white as milk.” In Dre s from am My F athe , Obama writes “When r people who don’t know me well, black or white, discover my background (and it usually is a discovery, for I ceased to advertise my mother’s race at the age of twelve or thirteen, when I began to suspect that by doing so I was ingratiating myself to whites), I see the split-second adjustments they have to make….” (1995, p. xv). J ames A. Baker III, a high-ranking Cabinet official in the Reagan, Ford, and Bush administrations, and most recently co-chair of the I raq Study Group, also known as the BakerHamilton Commission, learned in 2004 that he has cousins classified as black. One cousin, also named James Baker, broke the news at a political event when he extended his hand, saying, “How do you do, sir? My name is J ames Baker.” The “white” James Baker replied, “That’s interesting; my name is James Baker, too.” The “black” cousin replied, “I know, I have followed your career a long time. I’m your cousin” (Baker 2006, p. 420). Booke T. Washington, an r African-Am rican le r and e ade e ducator, was born into slave in ry 1856 as theson of a whitefathe r and e nslave m r. I n his d othe autobiography, Washington wrote “I havehe re ard ports to thee ct ffe t hat hewas a whitem who live an d on oneof thene ar-by plantations.” Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Newly Freed Slaves, 186 U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1910 I n 2000 re sponde we aske to re theraceor nts re d port race the conside d the se s and othe m m rs of sy re m lve r e be t he house ir hold to be . 6 Official Racial Categories 1. American Indian or Alaskan Native 2. Asian 3. Black 4. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 5. White 6. Other Race The following definitions explain the five categories in place today: American Indian or Alaskan Native - any person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, which by some estimates includes more than 2,000 distinct groups Asian - any person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent Native Hawaiian or other Pacific I slander- any person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii or the Pacific Islands. Black - any person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa White - any person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North America, or the Middle East 2000 C nsus RaceC gorie e ate s: 63 categories 6 single race 57 two or more races 15 two races 20 three races 15 four races 6 five races 1 six races 2 biological parents (25 years) 4 biological grandparents (50 years) 8 biological great grandparents (75 years) 16 biological great great grandparents (100 years) 32 biological great great great grandparents (125 years) 64 biological great great great great grandparents (150 years) 128 biological great great great great great grandparents (175 years) 256 biological great great great great great great grandparents (200 years) Parent(s)* Race All Races White Black American Indian/ Eskimo/Aleut Asian/Pacific Islander Other Race Child is Different Race 1 in 24 1 in 43 1 in 15 1 in 18 1 in 5 1 in 7.5 * parents can include unmarried partners and step-parents “’Blacks’” are always ‘black’ even when mixed with white or American Indian. ‘Indians,’ however….. Must remain unchanged in order to be considered ‘Indian” (Forbes 2001). “A ‘black’ person may be an isolated individual, integrated into a white context, and still be ‘black’ but an integrated ‘Indian’ (having lost his ‘tribe and language) is seldom regarded as an ‘Indian’” “The category of ‘black’ has a different quality than has that of ‘Indian,’ or so it would seem”(Forbes 2001). Race a vast collectivity of people more or less bound together by shared and selected history, ancestors, and physical features. These people are socialized to think of themselves as a distinct group, and they are regarded by others as such. Quiz Questions
1. In the United States, the Census Bureau classifies everyone within its borders as belonging to one of ______________ official “race” categories (including “other”).
a. b. c. d. two three six ten Quiz Questions
• ANS: C • PG: 235 • TY P: knowledge Quiz Questions
1. Which one of the following statements is false about the U.S. system of racial classification?
a. A parent and his or her biological children can be classified as two different races. b. People of Arab, North African, and Middle Eastern descent are classified as black. c. Hispanic is not a race. d. The U.S. population is divided into two ethnic groups: Hispanic and non-Hispanic. Quiz Questions
• ANS: B • PG: 235 • TY P: knowledge Quiz Questions
1. The label H ispanic is confusing because it forces people to identify themselves with conquistadors and settlers from
a. b. c. d. Britain. Brazil. Spain. Portugal. Quiz Questions
• ANS: C • PG: 237 • TY P: knowledge Quiz Questions
1. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell has written that he is the son of Jamaican immigrants and has African, English, Irish, Scottish, Jewish, and A rawak Indian ancestries. Y et, he is more often than not described as “black.” This situation reflects the importance of _________ to racial classification.
a. b. c. d. chance context choice consciousness Quiz Questions
• ANS: B • PG: 240 • TY P: application Quiz Questions
1. The Hispanic designation lumps together a variety of people into a single ________________ category.
a. b. c. d. racial ancestry ethnic language Quiz Questions
• ANS: C • PG: 237 • TY P: comprehension Quiz Questions
1. Pop star Michael Jackson altered his physical appearance in such a way that he appears white. J ackson’s efforts reflect the importance of _________ to racial classification.
a. b. c. d. chance context choice consciousness Quiz Questions
• ANS: C • PG: 239 • TY P: application Quiz Questions
1. ___________________ is a situation in which a dominant group defines some subgroup of people in racial or ethnic terms, thereby forcing that subgroup to become, appear, or feel more ethnic than they might otherwise be.
a. b. c. d. Designated ethnicity Ethnicity Foreign ethnicity Involuntary ethnicity Quiz Questions
• ANS: D • PG: 250 • TY P: comprehension • SOURCE: study guide Quiz Questions
1. The ___________________________ of 1882 prohibited the entry of Chinese laborers and, later, all Chinese into the United States.
a. b. c. d. Labor Prohibition Act Chinese Exclusion Act Immigration and Reform Act East Asia Exclusion Act Quiz Questions
• ANS: B • PG: 244 • TY P: knowledge Quiz Questions
1. Which one of the following groups is most likely to be a voluntary minority?
a. b. c. d. Native Americans Mexican-Americans Native Hawaiians Korean-Americans Quiz Questions
• ANS: D • PG: 250 • TY P: comprehension • SOURCE : study guide Quiz Questions
1. “It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use, and enjoyment of white persons . . . and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons.” This Georgia law is an example of __________ laws.
a. b. c. d. Civil Rights Jim Crow Civil War era Integration Quiz Questions
• ANS: B • PG: 253 • TY P: application ...
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