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Unformatted text preview: Rome to 264 B.C.E. Rome and the Etruscans
• A union of Latins and Sabines.
• Two Roman kings had Etruscan names.
• The Etruscans are a people of northern Italy
from the modern region of Tuscany.
• Twentieth-century archaeologists and historians
argued that the Etruscans had conquered early
Rome and gave Rome many of its institutions
and culture. Curule Chair and Fasces This modern
reconstruction has a
but not authentic. (Right) representation of fasces Etruscans and Romans: Conclusion
• Over the last 25 years, however, the idea that
the Etruscans conquered Rome has fallen into
• In fact, influences went both ways, and what
once was understood as Etruscan influence on
Rome (and the Latins) is now understood as
eastern (Greek & Phoenician) influence on all
of the peoples of central Italy.
• Roman Italy The Legendary History
• Early Rome was founded, according to the
Varronian tradition, in 753 BCE.
Aeneas and Troy.
Lavinium, and then Alba Longa.
Alternate legends credit Rhomos, or
Hercules or Evander.
The wolf-cubs, Romulus and Remus.
King Numitor, Rhea Silvia, Amulius. The Seven Kings
• Romulus, Latin
Numa Pompilius, Sabine
Tullus Hostilius, Latin
Ancus Marcius, Sabine
Tarquinius Priscus, Etruscan
Servius Tullius, Latin
Tarquinius Superbus, Etruscan The Last King
• Tarquin the Proud was the last king.
Supposedly murdered his predecessor,
After Tarquin’s son Sextus raped Lucretia, the
Romans expelled the kings and founded the
republic (509). Major Assemblies & Senate
• Comitia centuriata: elected consuls, praetors,
censors, made war and peace, passed leges;
• Comitia tributa: elected aediles, quaestors; 35
tribes, after 241 (note on Concilium Plebis).
• Senate: about 300 men who served for life,
unless removed by a censor; previous election
as aedile qualified one for the senate. Number
of senators was raised to 600 about 80 B.C. Organization of Assembly of the Centuries
• 18 equestrian centuries 9 juniors, 9 seniors
80 first class
40 juniors 40 seniors
20 second class 10 “ “ 10
20 third class
10 “ “ 10
20 fourth class 10 “ “ 10
30 fifth class
15 “ “ 15
2 engineers (with 1st or 2nd)
2 musicians (with 5th or 4th)
1 proletatians Patricians
• Patricians derived the name of their order
from patres (fathers).
The patricians were possibly a group of
aristocratic priests that controlled priesthoods
and had an automatic right to sit in the senate
by virtue of these religious duties.
If correct, the patricians comprised only some
part of the elite, not all of them.
During the early republic, they proceeded to
assert a monopolistic right to political office. The Origins of the Plebeians
• Who were the plebs?
The simplest definition is that the plebs
emerge by contrast.
The word “plebeian” is related to the Greek
word “plethos” the “masses.”
But the evidence seems to suggest that the
plebs, as a group embracing all Romans but
the patricians, emerged only over time. Origins of the Plebs (continued)
• Debt bondage (nexum) and the first,
secession of the plebs (494).
The plebs supposedly withdrew from the city,
refusing military service.
A patrician was sent to negotiate.
The result was the creation of 2 tribunes of the
plebs to look out for plebeian interests. Tribunes of the Plebs
• Originally 2 or 3, the number of tribunes was
probably raised to 5 in 471.
At first, the tribunican auxilium was extralegal, an example of plebeian self-help.
Eventually, it included several aspects: • •
• • Intercession.
Right to present laws to the tribes (plebiscitum). The number of tribunes was increased to 10
(about 457). Roman Magistrates: Overview
• 2 consuls—co-heads of state.
1 praetor—number rose to 8 eventually.
2 quaestors—junior assistants, 10-20 later. • 2 censors—elected every 5 years to an 18
• 1 dictator—6 months or less—named by the
consuls. Rome in the Fifth Century
• Rome and its neighbors faced constant
pressure from mountain tribes.
• Early in the Republican period, treaties were
negotiated with the Latins and with the Hernici,
both were known as the foedus cassianum.
• The Romans and their allies founded colonies
in order to hold the disputed territory. Colonists
would be recruited from Rome or from any Latin
or Hernician community. From these treaties
the Latin Right emerged. The Latin Right
• Really a series of three rights:
• Jus migrationis the right to acquire citizenship in
any Latin community simply by residing there.
• Jus Conubium: the right to marry any Latin of the
• Jus Commercium: the right to make binding
contracts and to own real estate in the territory of
another Latin community. Early Roman Wars
• Veii was an Etruscan city about 8 miles from
Rome with a territory of about 550 km2.
After 3 wars, Rome conquered Veii (396).
Rome’s territory increased from about 1000
km2 to about 1500 km2.
A few years later, Rome was sacked by Gauls
(390 or 386).
First Samnite War: 343-341 as a result of
accepting an appeal from the Campanians. Latin War (341-338)
• In 341, the Campanians and Latins rose
After Rome’s victory, the Latin right was
Some Latin communities were incorporated as
citizen communities as self-governing
Ethnicity didn’t matter.
Members of still other communities became
cives sine suffragio.
New Latin colonies were founded. Size of Roman State After 338
• Estimated size of Roman territory: 5,525 km²;
• Total Roman citizen population was about
347,000 (484,000 including Latin communities
surrounded by Roman territory). The estimated
size of Roman & allied territory is about 8,505
• Roman territory now included the best
agricultural land in the Italian peninsula. Roman Wars: 327 to 264
• Second Samnite War (327-304).
Third Samnite War (298-290), Samnites,
Umbrians, Etruscans and Gauls fought
War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus (281-272).
By 263, all Italian states south of the Po river
were controlled by Rome.
The wars with Carthage began in 264. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.
- Winter '10