n9earlyrome - Rome to 264 B.C.E. Rome and the Etruscans •...

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Unformatted text preview: Rome to 264 B.C.E. Rome and the Etruscans • A union of Latins and Sabines. • Two Roman kings had Etruscan names. • The Etruscans are a people of northern Italy from the modern region of Tuscany. • Twentieth-century archaeologists and historians argued that the Etruscans had conquered early Rome and gave Rome many of its institutions and culture. Curule Chair and Fasces This modern reconstruction has a chair-back, comfortable but not authentic. (Right) representation of fasces Etruscans and Romans: Conclusion • Over the last 25 years, however, the idea that the Etruscans conquered Rome has fallen into disfavor. • In fact, influences went both ways, and what once was understood as Etruscan influence on Rome (and the Latins) is now understood as eastern (Greek & Phoenician) influence on all of the peoples of central Italy. • Roman Italy The Legendary History • • • • • • Early Rome was founded, according to the Varronian tradition, in 753 BCE. Aeneas and Troy. Lavinium, and then Alba Longa. Alternate legends credit Rhomos, or Hercules or Evander. The wolf-cubs, Romulus and Remus. King Numitor, Rhea Silvia, Amulius. The Seven Kings • • • • • • • Romulus, Latin Numa Pompilius, Sabine Tullus Hostilius, Latin Ancus Marcius, Sabine Tarquinius Priscus, Etruscan Servius Tullius, Latin Tarquinius Superbus, Etruscan The Last King • • • Tarquin the Proud was the last king. Supposedly murdered his predecessor, Servius Tullius. After Tarquin’s son Sextus raped Lucretia, the Romans expelled the kings and founded the republic (509). Major Assemblies & Senate • Comitia centuriata: elected consuls, praetors, censors, made war and peace, passed leges; 193 centuries. • Comitia tributa: elected aediles, quaestors; 35 tribes, after 241 (note on Concilium Plebis). • Senate: about 300 men who served for life, unless removed by a censor; previous election as aedile qualified one for the senate. Number of senators was raised to 600 about 80 B.C. Organization of Assembly of the Centuries • • • • • • • • • 18 equestrian centuries 9 juniors, 9 seniors 80 first class 40 juniors 40 seniors 20 second class 10 “ “ 10 20 third class 10 “ “ 10 20 fourth class 10 “ “ 10 30 fifth class 15 “ “ 15 2 engineers (with 1st or 2nd) 2 musicians (with 5th or 4th) 1 proletatians Patricians • • • • Patricians derived the name of their order from patres (fathers). The patricians were possibly a group of aristocratic priests that controlled priesthoods and had an automatic right to sit in the senate by virtue of these religious duties. If correct, the patricians comprised only some part of the elite, not all of them. During the early republic, they proceeded to assert a monopolistic right to political office. The Origins of the Plebeians • • • • Who were the plebs? The simplest definition is that the plebs emerge by contrast. The word “plebeian” is related to the Greek word “plethos” the “masses.” But the evidence seems to suggest that the plebs, as a group embracing all Romans but the patricians, emerged only over time. Origins of the Plebs (continued) • • • • Debt bondage (nexum) and the first, secession of the plebs (494). The plebs supposedly withdrew from the city, refusing military service. A patrician was sent to negotiate. The result was the creation of 2 tribunes of the plebs to look out for plebeian interests. Tribunes of the Plebs • Originally 2 or 3, the number of tribunes was probably raised to 5 in 471. At first, the tribunican auxilium was extralegal, an example of plebeian self-help. Eventually, it included several aspects: • • • • • Intercession. Tribunican veto. Right to present laws to the tribes (plebiscitum). The number of tribunes was increased to 10 (about 457). Roman Magistrates: Overview • • • • 2 consuls—co-heads of state. 1 praetor—number rose to 8 eventually. 4 Aediles—infrastructure. 2 quaestors—junior assistants, 10-20 later. • 2 censors—elected every 5 years to an 18 month term. • 1 dictator—6 months or less—named by the consuls. Rome in the Fifth Century • Rome and its neighbors faced constant pressure from mountain tribes. • Early in the Republican period, treaties were negotiated with the Latins and with the Hernici, both were known as the foedus cassianum. • The Romans and their allies founded colonies in order to hold the disputed territory. Colonists would be recruited from Rome or from any Latin or Hernician community. From these treaties the Latin Right emerged. The Latin Right • Really a series of three rights: • Jus migrationis the right to acquire citizenship in any Latin community simply by residing there. • Jus Conubium: the right to marry any Latin of the opposite sex. • Jus Commercium: the right to make binding contracts and to own real estate in the territory of another Latin community. Early Roman Wars • • • • • Veii was an Etruscan city about 8 miles from Rome with a territory of about 550 km2. After 3 wars, Rome conquered Veii (396). Rome’s territory increased from about 1000 km2 to about 1500 km2. A few years later, Rome was sacked by Gauls (390 or 386). First Samnite War: 343-341 as a result of accepting an appeal from the Campanians. Latin War (341-338) • • • • • • In 341, the Campanians and Latins rose against Rome. After Rome’s victory, the Latin right was completely reinvented. Some Latin communities were incorporated as citizen communities as self-governing municipia. Ethnicity didn’t matter. Members of still other communities became cives sine suffragio. New Latin colonies were founded. Size of Roman State After 338 • Estimated size of Roman territory: 5,525 km²; • Total Roman citizen population was about 347,000 (484,000 including Latin communities surrounded by Roman territory). The estimated size of Roman & allied territory is about 8,505 km²; • Roman territory now included the best agricultural land in the Italian peninsula. Roman Wars: 327 to 264 • • • • • Second Samnite War (327-304). Third Samnite War (298-290), Samnites, Umbrians, Etruscans and Gauls fought against Rome. War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus (281-272). By 263, all Italian states south of the Po river were controlled by Rome. The wars with Carthage began in 264. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.

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