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Unformatted text preview: The Roman Revolution The Problems
• A city-state governing an empire.
Military service and the peasantry.
Other economic changes.
Italians and the question of citizenship.
Distinction between senators and other
• Tribunes and plebiscites. The Gracchan Crisis
• Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
• Tiberius’ land law (lex agraria).
• Tiberius’ tribuneship (133) and death. • Tribuneships of Gaius Gracchus (123, 122).
• Coalition between proletarians and equestrians.
• Land law, grain law.
• judicial law (governing the extortion court, the
quaestio perpetua repetundarum).
• Senate’s last act. Jugurtha and the Rise of Marius
• Jugurtha was king of Numidia. He fought Rome from
112 to 105.
• Gaius Marius (a new man) elected consul in 107.
• Marius accepted proletarian volunteers into army.
• His lieutenant Sulla captured Jugurtha in 105.
• Due to invasion of two barbarian tribes, the Cimbri and
the Teutones, Marius was re-elected consul every
year from 104 to 100.
• L. Appuleius Saturninus, Glaucia, & Marius. Social War, Marius and Sulla
• Many of the Italian allies now rose in the Social
• The end result was citizenship for the Italians.
• An Asian between Rome and Mithridates, the King
of Pontus began in 88.
• Sulla given command.
• Marius & Sulpicius. • Sulla marched on Rome.
• Cinna & Octavius were consuls in 87.
• After a quarrel Cinna and Marius eventually took
Rome. Marius executed many of his enemies. The Rivals Gaius Marius Lucius Cornelius Sulla Sulla’s Dictatorship
• Sulla returned to Italy in 83 and fought against
the senatorial faction of Marius and Cinna (now
• He was named dictator in 82.
• Proscribed some 1600 equestrians and 40 senators.
• Doubled size of senate & # of quaestors elected annually.
• Ended the rights of tribunes to hold other elected offices and
to present plebiscites.
• Reorganized the courts.
• Settled perhaps 80,000 of his veterans on confiscated land.
• Established regular policy of sending out pro-consuls and
pro-praetors as governors.
• Served as consul in 80, then retired.
• Died in 78 Pompey (106-48)
• Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (consul 89).
Served Sulla in the Civil War.
Hailed as Pompeius Magnus by Sulla.
Commanded an army in Spain against
• Returned to Italy and was elected consul (70). Crassus (ca. 115-53)
• Instrumental in Sulla’s victory in the civil war.
Said to have profited from Sulla’s proscriptions.
Spokesman of the equestrian order.
Put down the Spartacus rebellion (73-71).
Elected consul with Pompey in 70.
Together, they restored the rights of tribunes. Pirate War and Mithridates (again)
• Lex Gabinia (67) gave Pompey command
against the pirate fleets.
• Lex Manilia (66) gave Pompey command in the
continuing war against Mithridates.
• Between 65 and 62, Pompey ended the war,
annexed Pontus and Syria, entered into treaties
with Parthia and Armenia, intervened in a
Jewish civil war and took Jerusalem. Cicero, Verres and Catiline
• Cicero (106-43), a new man and a friend of
• Cicero made his reputation by his successful
prosecution of Gaius Verres in 70.
• Cicero was elected consul (63).
• Lucius Sergius Catiline organized a conspiracy
to overthrow the Roman state that year.
• Conspirators arrested and put to death. Caesar before 59
• Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44) was a patrician.
Nephew of Marius; married Cinna’s daughter.
Proscribed by Sulla, although he relented.
The pirate episode.
Praetor in 62; pro-praetor (Spain) in 61-60. The First Triumvirate
• Caesar’s enemies: Cato the Younger and
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (Cato’s son-in-law).
• Cato was the half brother of Servilia, Caesar’s
long-time mistress and the mother of Brutus.
• Cato was central in opposing: 1) the legislation
of Crassus; 2) the various acts, treaties and
laws that Pompey wanted approved; 3) the
election of Julius Caesar as consul.
• This opposition drove Caesar, Pompey and
Crassus to pool their resources. “First Triumvirate” Pompey Caesar Crassus Caesar’s Legislation
• Eased debts of over-extended tax-farmers:
Ratification Pompey’s treaties and other acts.
Two leges agrariae.
Lex Julia de repetundis (Julian Extortion Law).
Ordered that the daily proceedings of the
senate and the courts be published. Other Measures
• • One law gave Caesar the provinces of Illyria
and Cisalpine Gaul for 5 years as proconsul.
A senatus consultum also gave Caesar the
province of Transalpine Gaul after the death
of its governor.
Over the next 9 years (58-50) Caesar would
conquer Gaul. The Fifties
• Publius Clodius Pulcher (tribune in 58).
Crassus & Pompey shared consulship (55).
54: Julia died in childbirth.
53: Crassus killed at Carrhae by the Parthians.
52: Clodius is killed on the Appian Way; Milo
tried for his murder; Pompey named sole
consul; revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul. Civil War
• Pompey slowly turns against Caesar (53-50).
• Curio’s often repeated proposal (50).
• Caesar crossed the Rubicon (about January 10,
49), and in possession of Italy by mid-March.
• Caesar named dictator to hold elections (Dec.
• Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus (48). Caesar and Cleopatra
• Caesar became dictator again after Pharsalus.
Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was killed.
Caesar arrived in Alexandria a few days later.
Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra were fighting.
Caesar & Cleo. besieged in Alexandria (48-47).
In 47, Cleopatra gave birth to Caesarion,
formally Ptolemy XV Caesar.
• Caesar wins at Zela & Thapsus (47) and Munda
(45), ending the Civil War. Images of Cleopatra VII Philopater Caesar’s Reforms
• Caesar raised membership in the senate to 900
• Increased the number of quaestors & praetors.
• Extensive building program.
• He also founded schools and libraries in many
of the towns of the western provinces.
• Reduced the number of individuals eligible for
• Required that all wealthy citizens invest at least
half of their capital in land. Caesar’s Reforms (concluded)
• Gave the Latin Right to all the towns of Sicily
and either Latin or Roman citizenship to some
of the towns of Spain and Gaul.
• In the east, he reduced the level of taxation and
took the collection of taxes from the publicani.
Henceforth the municipal towns would collect
the required sums.
• He also minted Rome’s first gold coin.
• The Julian calendar.
• Became dictator perpetua in February 44. Caesar’s Assassination
• A conspiracy formed that included over 60
senators, led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and
Marcus Junius Brutus.
• On March 15, Caesar was assassinated.
• The next months were confused. By the time
the situation had clarified, the assassins Brutus
and Cassius were in the east; the assassin
Decimus Brutus was in northern Italy; Antony
(consul in 44) had been declared hostis. The Second Triumvirate
• Gaius Octavius Thurinus (grandson of one of
Caesar’s sisters) became Caesar’s son by
testamentary adoption. Officially, he became
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or Octavian as
we commonly call him today.
• Octavian joined forces with Lepidus and Antony
to form the triumvirate.
• A friendly tribune carried the lex Titia (11/27/43)
that gave them a 5 year commission to restore
the republic. Marcus Antonius Octavian Triumvirate (continued)
• Triumvirs proscribed 130 senators and 2000
• In January of 42, when they officially took
office, the senate was compelled to take an
oath to respect Caesar’s acts, dedicate a
temple to him, and to declare the dead Caesar
to be a god. Triumvirate (continued)
• 42: 3 battles were fought at Philippi; Cassius &
• 41: Antony and Cleopatra met at Tarsus; in 40,
she bore Antony a set of twins; also in 40,
Antony married Octavia, Octavian’s sister.
• 37: Antony entered into a royal marriage with
Cleopatra, who bore him a son in 36.
• They gave to their children significant Roman
territories that Cleopatra’s ancestors had once
ruled. Civil War Again
• 32: Antony divorced Octavia.
• 31: Octavian declared war on Cleopatra;
Octavian‘s admiral, Agrippa, defeated the navy
of Cleopatra and Antony at Actium.
• 30: Octavian invaded Egypt; Antony and then
Cleopatra committed suicide.
• The civil wars were over. The Augustan Settlement
• On 1/13/27, Octavian offered to hand over all of
his powers and return to private status. The
senate asked him to re-consider; he did.
• He was given proconsular imperium for 10
years over the single province of the 2 Spains,
Gaul, Syria and Egypt.
• The senate now resumed authority over the rest
of the empire.
• Three days later, the senate hailed Octavian as
Augustus. Imperial Powers
• Maius imperium (pro-consular imperium).
Tribunicia potestas (from 30 or 23)
He also held other republican powers, such as
the right to adlect (appoint) senators.
With the accession of Augustus, a long period
of peace began, the Pax Romana (27 BC—
AD 180). ...
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