The Problems•A city-state governing an empire.•Provincial government.• Tax-farming.•Military service and the peasantry.•Other economic changes.•Italians and the question of citizenship.•Distinction between senators and other equestrians.•Tribunes and plebiscites.
The Gracchan Crisis•Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.• Relationships.•Tiberius’ land law (lex agraria).•Tiberius’ tribuneship (133) and death.•Tribuneships of Gaius Gracchus (123, 122).•Coalition between proletarians and equestrians.•Land law, grain law.•judicial law (governing the extortion court, the quaestio perpetua repetundarum).•Senate’s last act.
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Jugurtha and the Rise of Marius•Jugurtha was king of Numidia. He fought Rome from 112 to 105.•Gaius Marius (a new man) elected consul in 107.•Marius accepted proletarian volunteers into army.•His lieutenant Sulla captured Jugurtha in 105.•Due to invasion of two barbarian tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, Marius was re-elected consul every year from 104 to 100.•L. Appuleius Saturninus, Glaucia, & Marius.