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Unformatted text preview: The (Later) Bronze Age and After Images of the Hittite Capital
Approximate dates for Hittite Kingdom:
Old Kingdom: 1650-1400 New Kingdom: 1400-1200
Lion gate of Hattusa Model of Hattusa Ruins of Hattusa Language Families
• The Hittites are the first people that we have discussed who spoke an Indo-European language. • Today, the Indo-European family is the most widely spoken group of languages on earth. • Member languages include: Greek, Latin (& Latin derived languages) Iranian (Farsi), Armenian, all of the Germanic and Slavic languages and many of the languages of India. Hittites (concluded)
• • • • One dynasty ruled the Hittite state for its entire history. Fought with Egypt over control of Palestine. Hittite civilization borrowed much from Mesopotamia: cuneiform writing, law, religious ceremony. The land of the Hittite’s received enough rainfall to practice dry-farming: there were no elaborate irrigation systems and therefore not as much centralizing bureaucracy. The Hittites seem to have been the first to work iron. • Minoan Crete
• Pre-Palatial (or Pre-Palace): 3100-1925/1900 • Proto-Palatial (or First Palace): 1925/19001750/1720 • Neo-Palatial (or Second Palace): 1750/17201490/1470 • Final-Palatial: 1490/1470-1370/1320 • Post Palatial: 1320-1100 Knossos and its Excavator Arial view of Knossos Artist’s reconstruction of Knossos Sir Arthur Evans The Palace at Knossos
• Throne Room Throne Room Part of Evans’ reconstruction Minoan Jewelry and Frescos Goddess and Griffin Bull jumping ring Blue monkey fresco Bull jumping fresco from Knossos Akrotiri
The Minoan settlement on the island of Thera was buried by the eruption of Santorini, following an earlier earthquake. The proposed dates are: • Earthquake – 1650 or 1560 • Volcano – 1628 or 1550/40
Boxing children fresco Excavated ruins of Akrotiri Mycenae Arial view of Acropolis Treasury of Atreus Reconstruction of Acropolis Mycenae Lion Gate Acropolis detail with Grave Circle A Death mask Palace at Pylos Throne Room and Artist’s reconstructions The Excavators of Troy
Heinrich Schliemann Frank Calvert Wilhelm Dörpfeld Carl Blegan Manfred Korfmann Chronology For Bronze-Age Troy
I II III , IV, V VIa-h VIi/VIIa VIIb1-2 Dates Destroyed by
fire fire fire (Troy V) earthquake/fire fire fire ca. 3000-2500 ca. 2500-2300 ca. 2300-1700 ca. 1700-1290 ca. 1290-1200/1180 ca. 1180-1050/1000 The Citadel of Troy (Levels I, II, VI – IX ) Troy VI &VII (with citadel and lower city) Troy VI model north tower Luwian Hieroglyphic seal (TroyVIIb1) Mycenaean Greeks in the Hittite Texts?
• • “Ahhiyawa:” Is Ahhiyawa to be identified with the Achaea of Homer (archaic Greek: Achaiwia later Achaia)?
Thus, Ahhiyawa = Land of the Achaians; its inhabitants, the Achaioi or Ahhijawa—now commonly transliterated from Hittite as Achijwa.* •
• “Wilusa” = “Wilios” = “Ilios,”* i.e., Troy.
The Iliad is a poem about the war for the city of Ilios. •
• • Millawata/Millawanda = Miletus
The Tawagalawa letter mentions Millawanda as a land subject to the king of the Ahhiyawa. Archaeologists have found Mycenaean artifacts at Miletus. *In Homeric Greek the “w” sound would be lost. Relevant Hittite Dates
• Reign of Muwattalli II: 1295-1272/70.
• Made the treaty with Alaksandu of Wilusa. • Fought the Battle of Kadesh (1274) against Rameses II. • Reign of Hattusili III (1267-1237).
• So-called “Tawagalawa Letter” written. • Destruction of Hattusa: shortly after 1200. Sea Peoples & the End of the Bronze Age
• Between 1250 and 1150 a series of migrations disrupted the Aegean world. • Troy was sacked, maybe twice. • Many of the Mycenaean centers were destroyed or abandoned. In some places, the palace was abandoned and occupation continued in the lower cities. • Ugarit was sacked, Bronze Age kingdom on Cyprus destroyed. • Hittite capital of Hattusa destroyed. • Egyptians recorded victories over groups called: "the peoples of the sea." • Populations redistributed themselves; e.g., the Peleset, or Philistines, settled in Palestine. Egypt in the New Kingdom
• To review: about 1550, Ahmose led a successful rebellion against the Hyksos (18th dynasty). • Thereafter, Egypt launched a series of invasions northward, establishing influence in Palestine and Syria. • Slavery became important for first time in Egypt. • New Kingdom Pharaohs alternately made war on, or were allies of, the Hittites and Mittanians. • During reign of Akhnaten, Hittites made serious inroads, one cause leading to the displacement of the 18th dynasty. • After death of Tutankhamen, a military leader founds 19th dynasty, the dynasty of the great warrior Rameses II. Dates of a Few Pharaohs
• • • • • • Amenhotep III: 1390-1352. Akhenaten: 1352-1338. Tut: 1336-1327. Rameses II: 1279-1212. Merneptah: 1212-1202. Rameses III: 1186-1154. Syncretism in Egypt before Akhenaten
• Earlier syncretic tendencies: many Egyptian deities tended to take some aspect of the sun god Re (or Ra); Sobk-Re, a crocodile god, Amon-Re, a local Theban deity. • "Re-Horus of the horizon who rejoices in his name of Shun, who is the disk Aten" (the quote comes from a hymn dating to the reign of Amenhotep III). Egypt under Akhenaten
• Worship of the sun-disk Aten (or Aton). • Importance of rays of the sun in the conception and worship of Aten: immanence—intrinsic spirit. • Creator of all, god of peace and love, ethical. • But was Atenism a monotheistic religion? • Egyptian peasants traditionally worshiped Pharaoh, who in turn propitiated the gods. This does not seem to have changed in Akhenaten’s reign. • Akhenaten’s religion did not survive long after his death. Akhenaten Problems of Hebrew Origins
• The region of modern Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Lebanon was called Canaan in ancient times. • The ancient Canaanites included ancestors of the Jews, Phoenicians and others. • The Hyksos either were, or included, Canaanites. • The story of exodus and the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt was first associated in ancient sources. • Indeed, the timing of the appearance of the Hebrews in Canaan is still in dispute today. Hebrew Origins (continued)
• According to Exodus, the Hebrew slaves were ordered to build the city of Pi-Rameses, the city named for Rameses II (1279-1212). Temple of Rameses II at Abel Simbal Moses & Hebrew Origins
• Moses was to oversee the construction. • Killed an Egyptian, fled Egypt. Later, he returned & led the Hebrew slaves out of Egypt. • Because of the golden calf episode, the Hebrews were forced to wander for 40 years. • Only after the 40 years of wandering did they begin the lengthy conquest of Canaan. • However, a well-known Egyptian temple inscription of Merneptah (1212-1202) proclaims his victories over several peoples in southern Canaan. It states in part: “Israel’s seed is not.” Hebrew Origins (continued)
• Thus, Egyptian records place a recognizable land (and people) of Israel in about the proper region at some time before the Bible would have the Hebrews begin their conquest of Canaan. • It is also worth noting that several Egyptian texts of the late 18th and 19th dynasties refer to a god worshipped in Canaan called YWH(in). • Several Egyptologists and biblical archaeologists connect the Egyptian references to a material culture in the hill country of what is today Jordan. Hebrew Origins (continued)
• The cities of the coastal plains of Canaan slowly withered away during the late Bronze Age. • This is the period of the Sea Peoples. • What happened in Canaan is part of the larger picture. Mostly, the cities of Canaan became slowly depopulated as the city-state system of the late Bronze Age collapsed. • The Philistines also established themselves in the coastal plain after about 1160, a time when many of the city-states were either destroyed or abandoned and Egyptian control or influence disappeared. Hebrew Origins (continued)
• It is during this period (late 13th to early 12th century), that the material culture now thought by many scholars to be Hebrew began to grow from its earlier humble beginnings. • Older villages become significantly larger at this time. More importantly, dozens of new villages appear. They seem to be modestly prosperous, but there are no real signs of great wealth or differences in status. • One scholar argues that the new and larger settlements are the result of migration from the declining cities of coastal Canaan. • The society represented by this culture subsequently expands all over the region of Israel by the time of David (ca. 1000). Hebrew Origins (continued)
• Remember the twelve tribes of Israel, two southern and ten northern, all supposedly descended from the sons of Jacob. • The biblical tradition, despite being much later, and despite the stories of conquest under Joshua, remembered that some Canaanite peoples (e.g., the Gibeonites and Shechemites) joined the Hebrew confederation by treaty. • Ezekiel, also states: “Your origin and your birth are of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite.” (16.3). The Kingdom of Israel
• Shortly before 1000, the Hebrew tribes established their independence from the Philistines. About this time they also captured the Canaanite stronghold of Jerusalem. • Saul became the first king (after ca. 1050?), followed by: • David (ca. 1005-965) & then Solomon (ca. 965925). • The Hebrew kingdom split into two independent states shortly after the death of Solomon— Judah (Judaea), and Israel. • By end of 8th century, the region came under the control of first the Assyrians, then the Chaldeans, the Persians, Greeks, and the Romans. It was the religion that endured. Assyrians
• Established in upper Mesopotamia before 2000. • By the ninth century, they were a major power. • After the Armenians cut off the sources of metal upon which the Assyrians depended, the Assyrians embarked on a program of conquest. • By 650, they controlled Canaan, the Nile delta, Syria, Babylon. • They began to develop more effective tools of imperial administration, but they were hated. • Their cruelty was legendary. Finally, in 612, Ninevah was destroyed. And its reputedly magnificent library was lost. Assyrian Empire Age of Small Kingdoms 612-549
• Chaldeans (neo-Babylonians) and Medes (an Iranian tribe) formed the alliance that overthrew the Assyrian kingdom. • Chaldeans, Medes, Lydians and Egyptians were the most important peoples to emerge, or re-emerge, as independent communities in the Middle East after the fall of the Assyrian state. • Chaldeans conquered Jerusalem and resettled many leading Jewish families in Babylon. • It was in Babylon that much of the Jewish Testament assumed the shape that it still has today. Chronology for the Rise of Persia
559: Cyrus the Great became king of Persia. 550/49: Cyrus became King of the Medes too. 546-39: Cyrus conquered Lydia (King Croesus). 539: Babylon is captured without much violence. 530: Cyrus killed; his son Cambyses succeeded. 525: Cambyses conquered Egypt. 522: Cambyses killed; his eventual successor was Darius (522-486). 514/13: Persian expedition to Thrace & Scythia. 490: Athenians defeated Persians at Marathon. Persian Empire about 500 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.
- Winter '10
- The Iliad