c6archaicgreece - Archaic Greece Chronology • • • •...

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Unformatted text preview: Archaic Greece Chronology • • • • Sub-Mycenaean: 1200-1025 Proto-Geometric: 1025-900 Geometric: 900-700 Archaic: 700-500 Dark Age Significant Approximate Dates: Early to mid 8th century: alphabet adopted and adapted from Phoenicians. 776 (traditional date): Olympic games begin. Ca. 750 and after: Establishment of Greek colonies in W. Mediterranean. Ca. 700: Poetry of Homer and Hesiod Orientalizing Phase: the Kouroi Mycerinus & Queen ca 2540 Athenian Kouros, ca 590 “Stop and grieve beside the tomb of Croesus, dead, whom once in battle’s front rank raging Ares destroyed.” Ca 530 Greek and Phoenician Colonization Pithekoussai (Ischia) The Island of Ischia was the site of the first Greek Settlement in the Western Mediterranean Some Early Greek Colonies in the West • • • • • • • Pithekoussai (Pithecusae): ca. 770 Cumae: 750-725 Syracuse: ca. 733 Rhegion: 720s Kroton: ca. 700 Taras (Tarentum): ca. 700 Massilia: ca. 600 The Polis • Aristotle defined a human as one whom is a citizen of a polis: andron zoion politikon (“man is a political animal”). Whatever one thinks of the narrowness of his definition, it underscores the importance of the polis in Greek life. Problem of definition: does “polis” mean a town or city? The word is often translated as “city-state.” But the notion of community is more basic to the original Greek concept. • • • Numbers of Poleis & Average Size • According to the Polis Institute, scholars have identified some 750 poleis, plus 300 more émigré communities founded outside Greece proper, mostly in the archaic age. Most of them were tiny, with an average territory of less than 100 sq. km and a citizen population of fewer than 1,000 adult males. Not more than a couple of hundred were larger. Corinth, a large polis, covered only 900 sq. km with about 10,000-15,000 adult male citizens in the classical period. • • • Hoplite Reform Chigi Vase: Proto-Corinthian (ca.700). Early representation of hoplites Athenian Government before Solon Archon Eponymous. Archon Polemarchus. Archon Basileus. 6 minor archons (thesmothetai = “lawservants”). • Council of the Areopagus. • Assembly (ekklesia). • Much is uncertain: how the archons were chosen; when former archons became members of the Areopagus; who qualified for assembly. • • • • Solon’s Shaking-off of Burdens • Debts secured on land or personal liberty were cancelled. • Mortgage (?) markers removed from land. • All servitude because of debt was ended. • Former Athenian citizens sold into slavery were redeemed. • No food, except olive oil could be exported. • Weights and Measures reformed (tradition says the coinage too, but this is not possible). • Skilled artisans from abroad were invited to settle in Athens. Solon’s Property Classes • Pentakosiomedimnoi: “500 measure* men”. • Hippeis: “Knights”, or “horsemen,” between 300-500 measures. • Zeugitai: “yokemen,” between 200-300 measures. • Thetes: originally, a person bound to his land or his master; later, a laborer; in Solon’s usage, anyone whose lands produced less than 200 measures. *medimnos: commonly translated as “bushel.” Duties of Solon’s Classes Pentakosiomedimnoi: Archons, Boule, Assembly. Hippeis: Archons, Boule, Assembly. Zeugitai: Boule, Assembly. Thetes: Assembly. If not before, the assembly is now an assembly of all citizens. Council of 400 (Boule) • The Council of 400 (or boule) was the new policy-making body taking over the duties of the Council of the Areopagus. • The boule debated, amended, and approved legislation that subsequently went before the assembly to be either passed or rejected. • Only the assembly could actually legislate, but nothing was put before the assembly, unless the Council of 400 approved of it first. • Boule was composed of 100 men from the upper three classes of each of the four Athenian tribes. Other Aspects of Solon’s System • Areopagus: Still composed of ex-Archons, but with different duties: primary court in capital cases and had “guardianship of the constitution.” • Heliaia: a court that all citizens could sit on as jurors. Any citizen could appeal a decision of an Archon to the Heliaia. It gave the thetes a role in the administration of justice, without giving them one in making policy. Chronology for Peisistratos’ Tyranny • Ca. 561: Peisistratos first becomes tyrant, but is driven out of Athens shortly thereafter. • Ca. 558: returned to power but was driven from Athens again about 2 years later and spent 10 years in exile. • 546: He becomes tyrant after winning battle of Pallene. • He remained tyrant until his death in 527. Chronology for Fall of Peisistradai • 514: Harmodios & Aristogeiton assassinate Hipparchus. • 511/510: Hippias ousted after Spartan military intervention. • 508: Isagoras appeals for Spartan aid against Kleisthenes. • 507/06: Athenians defeat Boeotians & Chalcidians. The Kleisthenic Tribes Ten new tribes created. Each composed of 3 Trittyes (Thirds). Each trittys was made up of demes. Evidence from later in the 5th century indicates that there were 139 demes altogether. • The idea was to mix up the population of Attica: each trittys was made up of demes from one region, either the shore, the plains, or the hills. • Each tribe contained one trittys composed of shore demes, a second of plains demes and the last of hills demes. • • • • The New System of Kleisthenes • Archons still chosen from upper 2 income classes • Council of 500 replaced Council of 400. • New Council was composed of 50 men chosen randomly from each tribe (upper 3 income classes). • Dikasteria: law-courts…originally for appeals, but they evolved into much more. Every year a jury pool of 6000 citizens was chosen randomly. Individual juries were large: 501 jurors, for example, tried Sokrates. Modifications to the System by 486 • Ten Strategoi elected annually from 501. These ten generals were chosen to lead each tribe’s hoplites and to advise the Polemarch. • Ostracism: possibly an original feature, but it wasn’t used until 487. • (487) Archons were chosen randomly from a short list of candidates provided by each tribe. Three Estimates of Athenian population in the second half of the fifth Century Old Athenian Citizens: 40,000 Women & Children: 120,000 Metics (aliens): 40,000 Slaves: 100,000 Total: 300,000 New (high) 50,000 60,000 150,000 180,000 25,000 – 40,000 60,000 – 80,000 285,000 – 360,000 (low) Chronology of Early Sparta • • • • Unification of Lakedaimonia: before 750. Conquest of Messenia: ca. 730-700. Founding of Taras (Tarentum): ca. 700. Sparta defeated in a couple of wars with its neighbors: ca. 670-660. • Evidence of Hoplite reform in Sparta: ca. 650. Spartan Classes and Demography 9,000 “peers” – homoioi* • 27,000 Spartan women and children. • 120,000 “dwellers-around” – perioikoi (30,000 lots). • 120,000 helots (no reliable ancient reports on #s). • 276,000 (plus an unknown # of mothones**). Together, Spartans and dwellers-around made up the greater polis of Lakedaimonia. *The number of Spartan peers declined severely throughout the historical period. **Mothones are essentially those who lost citizenship or who never gained it. • Institutions of Spartan Government Two Kings. Gerousia (Council of Elders) – 28 men over 60 and the two kings. Ephors – 5 annually elected magistrates. Apella – Assembly of Spartan Peers. Chronology of the Persian Wars • • • • Ionian Revolt – 499-494. Marathon - 490. Athenians began building new fleet - 483. Xerxes Invasion: • Thermopylae - 480 • Artemisium - 480 • Salamis - 480 • Plataea - 479 • Mycale - 479 Persian Empire about 500 Modern Trireme Reconstruction Inside the Trireme Estimates of Persian Army at Marathon • Herodotus gives no figures for the Persian army at Marathon. What he does say is the naval forces included “600 triremes.” Later ancient estimates of the Persian army range from 100,00 to 300,000 men. Estimates of modern scholars range from less than 10,000 to 25,000. 20,000 to 25,000 is a common estimate that can be justified on strategic grounds. • • Athenian Burial Mound at Marathon Legendary Runs of Pheidippides • According to Herodotus, he ran from Athens to Sparta (149 miles) arriving in Sparta on the next day. • This feat has been duplicated in the modern Spartathlon race (since 1983). Best and worst winning times are: under 22 hours and under 36 hours. • Perhaps better known is the run attributed to him after Marathon: “rejoice, we conquer.” This story seems to appear first in an essay of Plutarch, who gave the runner bearing the news a different name, and then later, Lucan, who names him “Philippides.” • Some Ms. of Herodotus also have this version. The Persian Army in 480 • Simply totaling the figures provided by Herodotus yields a total of over 5 million men. • Many modern scholars estimate 500,000, others simply refuse to speculate. • It is curious that, excluding naval forces and limiting the count strictly to combatants, a total of about 1.7 million is reached (plus later European additions). • A circumstantial case can be made that the size of the Persian land army was systematically inflated by a factor of 10. The Persian Fleet in 480 • Total size of the fleet is given as 1327 triremes & 3000 penteconters used as supply ships. • It should also be noted that the number of ships required to bridge the Hellespont twice was 360 + 314 = 674. • If all the ships used in the bridges were triremes, only 653 would remain to be manned. • Earlier bridges were supposedly destroyed by storms. Thus, some 670 ships, triremes and penteconters, were already wrecked. Greek Forces at Thermoplyae • Spartan homoioi: 300 1,000 • Perioikoi (about) • Helots: 1,000 – 2,000* • Other Peloponnesians: 2,700 • Thespians: 700 • Thebans: 400 • Phokians: 1,000 • Lokrians: 1,000* • Total: 8,100 -9,100 *Lokrians & Helots #s are not attested. Thermoplyae From the west. In antiquity, the sea came up to the modern road. Greek Forces at Artemisium & Salamis • Artemisium: originally 271 triremes, of which 127 were Athenian, and 9 penteconters. • Joined (on the second day) by 53 Athenian triremes. • Salamis: Herodotus actually listed 366 triremes (+ 7 penteconters) for the Greeks, but he gave the total as 378. • Aeschylus gave the total as 310. Since he fought at Salamis, his testimony is preferable. Plataea and Mycale • Herodotus says that the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea (479) numbered about 300,000 (plus Greek allies), the opposing Greeks about 110,000 (38,700 of those were hoplites). • The individual cities supplying troops (but not their numbers) can be confirmed by an inscription on a Delphic tripod. • Many modern scholars place the numbers at about 50,000 each. Even armies of this size would make Plataea a very large battle and critically important. • Tradition maintained that the Greek victories at Plataea and Mycale were won on the same day. ...
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