c7pelopwar - Delian League and the Peloponnesian Wars...

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Unformatted text preview: Delian League and the Peloponnesian Wars Founding of the Delian League • 478/77: Many Ionian and island communities joined with Athens in a new military alliance that eventually grew to over 150 cities. • A permanent alliance. • Smaller cities were only assessed tribute. • Not every community joined voluntarily. Themistokles (ca. 523-459) • • • • • Initiated the policy of building a large Athenian fleet. Led the Athenian navy at Artemisium and Salamis. One of the first Athenian statesmen to realize that Athens and Sparta were long-term rivals. He was ostracized sometime in the 470s. Later, Themistokles was forced to flee his exile in Argos and went to Persia; died as a Persian satrap. Kimon (d. 450/49) Son of Miltiades. General in 478 and every year from 476-462. Pan-Hellenist, trusted by the allies of Athens. Led Delian League forces to victory at the Eurymedon (between 469-466?). • Behind effort to aid Sparta during the Messenian War that erupted after the earthquake (462). • Ostracized in 461: war between Athens and Sparta broke out shortly thereafter. • Returned to Athens in 452 or 451. • • • • Perikles (ca. 495-429) • • • • • Nephew of Kleisthenes and son of Xanthippus. Attested as strategos in every year from 443-429. Leader of the popular faction, supported Ephiatles. Chief architect of the policy of establishing kleruchies. Responsible for moving the treasury of the Delian League from Delos to Athens. • Used the revenues to build the Parthenon & to fund salaries for civic duties. Long Walls of Athens Chronology of Major Events: 454-440 • • • • • • • 460: First war between Athens and Sparta begins. 454: Treasury of the Delian league moved to Athens after destruction of fleets in Egypt. 451: Sparta and Athens agree to a 5 year truce. Ca. 449: “Peace of Callias” (?) ends fighting between Athens and Persia. 448: Athens collected tribute by force. 447: Boeotians defeated Athenians at Coronea. 446/45: Athens & Sparta agreed to a 30 year treaty. Changes to Athenian Constitution • • 487/86 – Archons chosen by lottery. 462/61 – Council of Areopagus lost its function as guardian of the constitution. Ephialtes introduced this law, Perikles supported it. 461-451 – Pay for jury duty introduced. 458 – Upper three classes now qualified for the archonships. About this time, all 4 classes became eligible for Council of 500. After ca. 450, there is little evidence that credentials were checked at all. • • • Consequences of the Changes • Council of 500 becomes more important. • For 1/10 of the year apiece, the 50 councilors from each tribe formed the executive committee of the Council of 500 – prytaneis (prytany). • Major duty was to provide the executive function for Council of 500. The prytany set the agenda, etc. The chairmanship of the prytany (epistates ton prytaneon) rotated every day. Thucydides (ca. 460/455-399) • • • • Author of Peloponnesian War. Related to Kimon. Caught and survived the plague. One of the generals of Athens in 424. He arrived late at Amphipolis and was exiled. • Returned to Athens after end of the war. • Never completed his history. Causes of the Peloponnesian War • • • • Affair at Corcyra (Battle of Sybota) Revolt of Potidaea Megarian Decree Fear of Athens: the “truest cause.” The first years • 431: Thebans attack Plataea in March; Spartan invasion of Attica in May. • 430: Plague in Athens. • 429: Plataea is placed under siege by the Spartans. • The plague in Athens didn’t lift until 429/28. Perikles was one of its victims. Perikles Mytilene, Plataea, Corcyra • 428: Mytilene on Lesbos revolted. • 427: Mytilene fell & the Athenian assembly debated its fate (Kleon first appears in Thucydides history); Plataea falls to Spartans & Plataeans are executed; Athenians gave citizenship to surviving Plataeans. • Civil war broke out in Corcyra. Important Events: 425-421 • 425: Athenians capture almost 200 Spartan peers at Sphacteria. • 424: Athenian attempt to seize Megara failed; Athenians defeated at Delium; Spartans, led by Brasidas, took Amphipolis; both sides agreed to a one year truce. • In 422, after the truce expired, both Kleon and Brasidas are killed in battle at Amphipolis. • In 421, Athens and Sparta signed a 50 year peace treaty commonly known as the “Peace of Nikias.” A Poisoned Peace • Amphipolis was to be turned over to Athens, but when the locals refused, the Spartans did nothing, but offered Athens a 50 year alliance instead. Corinth tried to sabotage the peace from its inception. Thebes too remained hostile to Athens. • • Athenian Reaction: 421-418 • Two of Sparta’s Peloponnesian allies, Mantinea and Elis had territorial disputes with Sparta. • When Sparta acted, Mantinea and Elis allied themselves with Argos (enemy of Sparta). • The Athenians subsequently negotiated a treaty with Argos (420). • In 418, Athenians, Argives and Mantineans were defeated at Mantinea by the Spartans. • Both sides ignored the fighting and pretended that the Peace still held. Alkibiades (ca. 450-404/3 • • • • • • • • • Nephew of Perikles. Student of Sokrates. Trendsetter. Brilliant (?). Self-indulgent. Handsome. Promiscuous. First elected general in 420. Athenian politician behind the treaty with Argos. Attack on Melos • • • • Athens had tried to force Melos into the Delian League unsuccessfully in 426. 30 ships, 1,200 hoplites and two generals were sent to Melos in 416. The allies from the islands sent a further 8 ships and 1,500 hoplites. Allied participation suggests that the operation was not seen as any outrage at the time. Melian Debate • The Melian debate is probably the section of the history of Thucydides most frequently cited and quoted. • “…since you know as well as we do that right, as the world goes, is only in question among equals in power, while the strong do as they can and the weak suffer what they must.” (5.89). Massacre at Melos • • • • When Melos finally fell, the Athenians killed all of the adult males and sold the rest into slavery. There is no evidence of any disagreement about this policy in Athens; Aristophanes even joked about the hunger of the Melians in The Birds (first produced in 414). The massacre at Melos, however, did inspire Euripides to write The Trojan Women, one of the most powerful anti-war works ever written. Athenians sent 500 Kleruchs to occupy Melos. • The Syracuse Expedition: an Overview • 416/415: Segesta requested aid. • 415: expedition sent to Sicily; Affair of the Hermae; Alkibiades eventually fled to Sparta (from Sicily). • 414: Athenians besieged Syracuse; Spartans sent Gylippus to Syracuse. • 414: Spartans ravaged Argos; Athenians raided coast of Lakonia. • 414/13: Nikias sent letter to Athens requesting either reinforcements or a recall of the force; he asked to resign; Spartans invaded Attica. • 413: Reinforcements sent. Size of the Athenian Force at Syracuse • The force sent in 415 included: 100 Athenian triremes, 40 of them troop transports, 34 other triremes; 5,100 hoplites, more than half from allies and subjects of Athens; in addition, there were 1,300 light-armed infantry & 30 cavalry = 33,230 men & 134 triremes. In 414, a further 680 cavalry were sent or recruited in Sicily. In 413, 73 additional triremes, almost 5,000 hoplites & thousands more light infantry were sent. • • • Destruction of the Force at Syracuse • In 413 the entire Athenian force was lost. • Thousands were killed, thousands more taken as slaves by private persons. • Some 7,000 surrendered to Syracusan authorities. Demosthenes & Nikias were put to death. • After 70 days, all except Athenians, Italians & Sicilians were sold into slavery. The rest apparently perished. Athenian Reaction to Syracuse • Athens had suffered a colossal catastrophe. The city’s free population was probably now reduced to less than half of its pre-war size. One widely quoted estimate of the remaining strength of Athens at this time is: 9,000 adult male citizens of the hoplite class (or above) of all ages; 11,000 thetes and 3,000 metics. The assembly took steps to secure the resources necessary to build more ships and to maintain the empire. • • Terms of Spartan Treaty with Persia • • • • Sparta recognized the Persian claim to all the cities that the king or his ancestors had controlled. Both partners agreed to keep the Athenians from money and supplies. Neither could make peace without the consent of the other. Persians agreed to fund a Spartan fleet by paying the wages of its oarsmen, sailors, and marines. Alkibiades in Ionia (412-410) • He was with the Spartan forces in Ionia. • Shortly after a Spartan victory that Alkibiades had a part in, the Peloponnesian forces in Ionia complained to Sparta about Alkibiades; the Spartans ordered his death. • Alkibiades then joined the retinue of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. • Promised Persian aid to Athens, if the Athenians would overthrow the democracy. Democracy Overthrown • Initially the movement to overthrow the democracy seems to have had wide support. • After it became clear that Alkibiades did not have the leverage with the Persians that he claimed, some Athenian leaders decided to go through with the plan anyway and install an oligarchic regime. • A bloodless coup brought the government first established by Kleisthenes to an end The Aftermath of the Coup • While the coup happened in Athens, the oligarchs on Samos tried to overthrow the Samian democracy. The Athenian fleet, stationed at Samos, intervened, saving democracy at Samos. On hearing of the coup in Athens, the men in the fleet, declared themselves the true Athenian government. Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus were elected as generals. Alkibiades was recalled. • • • War in the Hellespont • • • • Spartan fleet moved into the Hellespont. The Athenians followed. The Athenians won a victory at Cynossema. Shortly after, the Athenians won another victory at Abydos. In 410, the Athenians won a very important victory at Cyzicus. They destroyed or captured the entire Peloponnesian fleet, routed their army and killed the Spartan admiral Mindarus. A Spartan officer wrote back to Sparta: “Ships gone, Mindarus dead, men starving, don’t know what to do.” Important Developments: 408-406 • In 408: Prince Cyrus the Younger took command of the Persian war-effort. • 407: Lysander appointed admiral by Spartans. • 407: Alkibiades returned to Athens. • 406: Athenians suffered a minor defeat at Notium; shortly thereafter, Alkibiades went into voluntary exile. Battle of Arginusae (406) • • • Athenians had promised citizenship to metics & freedom to slaves who would serve. In the Summer of 406, the largest fleet engagement in the war took place. The Athenians and their allies had 155 triremes, the Spartans 120 with 50 more were blockading Mytilene. The Spartans lost 77 ships, the Athenians 25. • The Trial of the Generals • The crews of 12 Athenian triremes drowned and their bodies were not recovered at Arginusae. • The generals seems to have made no prebattle provision to rescue men or recover corpses. • Thrasybulus & Theramenes (not elected generals in 406) were ordered to rescue the living and recover the dead but their men objected due to a storm that arose. Trial of the Generals (continued) • When word of Arginusae reached Athens, at first the people were joyous, then angry as details emerged. • At a meeting of the assembly, the people were on the verge of giving the generals a pass, but night fell before voting was completed. • The next day was the festival of the Apaturia, a celebration of the families & phratries of Attica. • The losses of Arginusae became painfully obvious and many demanded retribution. Trial of the Generals (continued) • • A proposal was made to try the generals in mass. The prytany refused to submit the original proposal, but they too were threatened with trial. The generals were convicted and executed. Sokrates was almost certainly epistates ton prytaneon on that day. • • Aegospotomi • After Arginusae, the Spartans again offered to make peace; Athenians unwisely rejected the offer. • Lysander returned as effective admiral of the Spartan fleet. • At Aegospotomi, in August of 405, the Athenian fleet was destroyed and all captured Athenians (3,000-4,000) were executed. End of the War • Theban and Corinthian leaders explicitly said that they wanted all Athenians put to death (or enslaved) and the city turned into pasture. Athens eventually surrendered. Her long walls were torn down; she became an ally of Sparta; her fleet was reduced to 12 ships; her empire broken up; and the pro-Spartan government of the Thirty Tyrants installed. • After the War’s End • The Thirty Tyrants have an evil reputation. • In 403, Thrasybulus led a rebellion against them. • The rebellion was ultimately successful and the Spartans intervened and allowed the Athenians to restore their democracy. The Thirty Tyrants and Sokrates • Students of Sokrates were prominent among the Thirty Tyrants: Kritias was their leader and Charmides was the uncle of Plato. • Other students of Sokrates included Xenophon and Alkibiades. • Sokrates was put on trial in 399, accused of blasphemy and corrupting the youth of Athens. • One of the three prosecutors was Anytus, one of the leaders of the rebellion against the Thirty Tyrants. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.

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