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Unformatted text preview: Greece in the Fourth and Third Centuries Sparta and Persia (ca. 404-394)
• Persia claimed the Greek cities of Asia. • Sparta committed forces against Persia. • In 402, prince Cyrus, with Spartan support, revolted against his elder brother. • Sparta’s power was resented in Greece. • In 395, a quarrel that Thebes provoked led to renewed fighting in Greece. • This war pitted Sparta and its allies against principally Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens. • Fighting continued until 387. Peace of Antalcidas (387/6)
• A.k.a. the King’s Peace: • Persia received the Asiatic Greek cities & Cyprus. • Recognized Athenian control of Lemnos, Skyros & Imbros. • All leagues, except Sparta’s, were to be dissolved. • The Spartan league continued existence was seen as “compatible with liberty.” After the Peace of Antalcidas
• Sparta interpreted the peace to suit itself. This led to renewed fighting. • By 378, Athens established what is commonly called The Second Athenian League. • Led by Epaminondas, the Thebans decisively defeated the Spartans at Leuctra (371). • More than half of the Spartan homoioi present had been killed (400 of 700). After Leuctra there were only about 900 living Spartan males of military age (between 18 and 55). Aftermath of Leuctra
• • Over the next few years, the Thebans liberated Messenia. Megapolis in southern Arcadia was also established. Eventually, many of the small towns subject to Sparta were incorporated into this new anti-Spartan bastion. Epaminondas was killed in 362 at Mantinea. Although Thebes remained the most powerful city in Greece after 362, its great days were behind it. • • Isokrates and Pan-Hellenism
• As early as 380, many recognized that the polis system was flawed. Conservatives often favored pan-Hellenic solutions. • Prominent among them was the Athenian orator Isokrates, a critic of the democracy and a former student of Sokrates. He placed his hopes in several men, finally settling on Philip of Macedon. • A unity program: 1) conquer Greece; 2) invade the Persian empire; 3) settle indigent Greeks on the conquered land. Macedon before Philip II
• Macedon was a less developed region of Greece; tribal and pastoral, dominated by local elite families. • Perdiccas III was Philip’s elder brother. He was killed in fighting in 359. • Philip, who had been a hostage in Thebes, returned to Macedon. Early Years of Reign of Philip II
• • • He expanded into Chalcidice and Thrace in an attempt to control the region’s mines. His initial conquests provided him with the resources required to found cities. He convinced Greeks to come to Macedon and join his cavalry companions, rewarding them with estates. The income from mines allowed him to hire common mercenaries. • Army of Philip II
• A system of conscription was introduced. The Macedonian tribesmen were trained in hoplite tactics. The spear was lengthened to about 16-18 ft. (sarissa), the shield became smaller, the armor lighter. Created an effective cavalry. Many of the light armed troops were mercenaries from Greece and from the tribal peoples of Thrace. • • Macedonian Phalanx Alliance of Thebes and Athens
• • • • Thebes and Athens became allies in 338. At Chaeronea, Philip defeated the forces of Thebes, Athens and their allies. The eighteen year-old Alexander led the decisive cavalry charge. Hellenic League (of Corinth) emerged from the Common Peace treaty that Philip imposed on the Greeks after Chaeronea. Briefly, Philip was to be hegemon. A war of revenge against Persia was declared. • • Death of Philip II
• Philip had a rocky relationship with his son, Alexander (356-323) and Alexander’s mother, Olympias. • After Chaeronea, Philip married again. • His latest wife, Cleopatra, was the niece of one of his generals (Attalus). • Philip was assassinated in 336. • Pausanias, one of Philip’s officers, stabbed him. • After his assassination, Cleopatra, her newborn child, and her uncle were all put to death. Alexander’s First Two Years in Asia
• (334) defeated a Persian force at the Granicus; most of Ionia had been “liberated” by the summer’s end. (333) defeated Darius at Issus. Alexander captured the Persian royal women. • Alexander and Darius at Issus Thought to be a 1st century Roman copy of 4th century original mosaic Phoenicia and Egypt
• • • • 332: Tyre & Gaza besieged (7 & 2 months). Later that year, he invaded Egypt. He founded Alexandria (by Egypt) at the westernmost mouth of the Nile. Sometime thereafter, he received the 3rd and last peace offer from Darius: the hand of one of his daughters and all land west of the Euphrates. Gaugamela/Arbela and After
• (331) met Darius again at Gaugamela. • That winter, he occupied Persepolis; the palace was burnt, by accident, or for revenge. • He was crowned King of Kings that winter. • Darius fled after Gaugamela; in 330, Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, arrested & killed him. • Alexander pursued Bessus. In 329, he was turned over to Alexander, tried and executed. Last Years of the Campaign
• By 327, he had secured Bactria and Sogdiana. • In 326, he defeated the Indian Raj, Porus, at the Hydaspes; Porus was left in control as a client king. • Later that fall, the army mutinied. After constructing ships and barges, the army sailed and marched down the Indus to the sea. • Alexander was seriously wounded attacking the town of Malli. The End of Alexander’s Reign
• After the costly journey across the Geodrosia desert with part of the army, Alexander made his way to Susa. • In the fall of 324, Hephaestion, his closest adviser and probable lover, died. • In 323, Alexander moved to Babylon. He fell ill near the end of May and died on June 10, just a couple of weeks before his 33rd birthday. • He left a son, Herakles (by Barsine, captured at Issus); His wife Roxana was 6 or 7 months pregnant. Alexander’s Successors
• For about 50 years after Alexander’s death his officers fought over his empire. • The essential framework was in place by about 275. There were 3 great successor kingdoms: • Ptolemaic Egypt • Antigonid Macedon • Seleucid State (embracing Mesopotamia, Syria and as much else as possible.) • These states endured until they were conquered by the Romans (between about 165 and 30 BCE). The Result
• This period is called the Hellenistic Age. • Seleucid monarchy seems to have established poleis as a matter of policy. • Ptolemies encouraged Greek settlement too. • Greek became a dominant language throughout the eastern end of the Mediterranean world. • Great age of ancient science & mathematics. • Decline of the culture of the polis. Cities were now simply part of larger states and great empires. Some Hellenistic Scientists & Philosophers • Euclid – Elements of Geometry. • Eratosthenes – measured circumference of the earth. • Aristarchus – proposed a heliocentric system. • Hipparchus – star catalog. • Archimedes of Syracuse – calculated the accepted approximation of pi; invented integral calculus, etc. • Hieron (or Hiero) of Alexandria – steam engine. • Diogenes the Cynic • Zeno of Cyprus • Epicurus ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.
- Winter '10