c10punicwars - Rome: 264 to about 150 Carthage • • •...

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Unformatted text preview: Rome: 264 to about 150 Carthage • • • Poeni = “Phoenicians” in Latin. 814 is the traditional founding date. Carthage only achieved dominance over the rest of the Punic colonies during the long fifthcentury war with the western Greeks. Carthage was ruled by a merchant oligarchy. At some point early in its history, Carthage adopted the typical institutions of a GreekItalic-Etruscan city-state. • • Roman & Carthaginian Empires in 264 First Punic War, Initial Years • • • • • • Mamertines and Messana. Siege of Messana broken in 263. Hiero of Syracuse negotiated a peace with Rome (263). Many Sicilian cities now went over to Rome. Carthage gathered a force of mercenaries and occupied Agrigentum. Agrigentum fell to the Romans in 261. Rome Decides to Build a Fleet • • Romans had a fleet of 20 triremes before the war with Tarentum. In 261 or 260 the decision was taken to build a fleet of 100 quinqueremes and 20 triremes. Quinquereme The Corvus, A Roman Innovation • The corvus redefined galley tactics by turning a sea battle of maneuver into a land battle won by superior numbers. Early Naval Battles • In 260, the Romans won at Mylae. • Ecnomus (256): Ecnomus may have been the largest naval battle in history. • Polybius reports 330 Roman and 350 Carthaginian ships (more than 220,000 men). • Roman invasion of Africa followed. After an initial victory, the army was defeated. The fleet was mostly destroyed in a storm of Camarina. Later Years of the War • • • • Romans took Panormus (Palermo) in 254. 250: the Romans began the siege of Lilybaeum (Marsala), which would last until the end of the war. In 247, Hamilcar Barca arrived to take over the defense of Marsala. In 241, after another defeat of a Carthaginian naval relief force, Hamilcar was empowered to negotiate the final peace. Terms of the Peace • Carthage had to pay an indemnity, evacuate Sicily, agree to a treaty of friendship with Rome and to the return of prisoners without ransom. • Carthage could not make war against Syracuse. • Lipari Islands were turned over. • Indemnity was initially set at 2,200 Euboic talents (about 56 tons of silver), payable over 20 years. Another 1000 talents was added to the indemnity and the time permitted was halved to 10 years. Mercenary War (241-238) • • • • The unpaid mercenaries of Carthage revolted. Rebels were supported by the Libyans & Numidians. Hamilcar eventually ended the rebellion. Shortly after the revolt, the Romans acted on an appeal by Carthage's revolted mercenaries on Sardinia and occupied Sardinia (238-37). After this incident, another war was inevitable. • Carthage and Spain • • • Carthage decided to recover its losses by reestablishing its bases in Spain. Hamilcar led the expedition. Soon Spain produced far more wealth for Carthage than Sicily and Sardinia ever had— especially the mines: gold, silver, copper and iron. Spain After Hamilcar’s Death • • • In 229, Hamilcar was killed. Authorities in Carthage gave command to Hamilcar’s son-in-law, Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal was even more successful than Hamilcar. Hasdrubal’s Years • The Greek city of Massilia was a Roman ally and an ancient enemy of Carthage. Threatened by Carthage’s growing influence in Spain, the Massiliots persuaded the Romans to take an interest. The result was that Rome and Hasdrubal concluded a treaty that established the Ebro river as the boundary of Carthaginian Spain. • Hannibal in 221-220 • In 221 Hasdrubal was murdered, his brother-inlaw, Hannibal, 26, took command. • In the winter of 220-219, Roman emissaries warned him to keep his hands off of the town of Saguntum. Saguntum • The status of Saguntum in the treaty negotiated by Hasdrubal is uncertain. • It was south of the Ebro. • Romans had intervened in an internal dispute at Saguntum at the invitation of some of its citizens. • Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum, it fell in 218. • Romans sent a embassy to Carthage, demanding that Hannibal and his staff be turned over to Rome or else. Hannibal Marches • • • • Hannibal gathered a large army (80,000). The Romans were delayed by Illyrian pirates, and then by Gauls who rose in rebellion. Hannibal finally marched with perhaps 50,000. As his army crossed the Rhone, he discovered that the Romans had finally landed near Massilia. Hannibal fled north and disappeared into the Alps, crossing mountains further north and much higher than he had intended. • Hannibal Arrives in Italy • Hannibal arrived in Italy after a horrible two week crossing with about half of his army. In an inscription recorded by Polybius (3.56), Hannibal claimed that the forces that survived the crossing of the Alps included: 12,000 African spearmen. 8,000 Spanish infantry. 6,000 Numidian and Spanish cavalry. 26,000 total. • • • • First Years of the War • • • • • Trebbia (or Trebia), in December 218. Lake Trasimenus (Trasimene) in June 217. After Trasimene, Fabius the Delayer was named dictator. After the elections of 216, the Romans recruited 8 legions. Cannae (August 216). After Cannae • • • • Revolt of Capua. Tarentum and Syracuse also revolted. Philip V of Macedon allied with Carthage. Although it is true that much of the mountainous country of Southern Italy went over to Hannibal, most of the Roman confederation held firm. • In the long run, Hannibal proved incapable of storming Rome and no other important allies revolted. Rome Recovers • • • • During the next decade the Romans recovered. In 212, Syracuse fell. Capua (211) and Tarentum (209) also fell. Over time, the Romans pinned Hannibal in the southern part of Italy; they attacked Philip in the Balkans and never abandoned their efforts in Spain. • Peace with Philip was concluded in 204. Scipio Africanus • Publius Cornelius Scipio, later called “Africanus” for his victories over Carthage, was the son of the consul of 218. After his father and uncle were killed in Spain (211), he assumed command of the Roman effort in Spain (210-206). He was given imperium pro consulare as a privatus. • Scipio (continued) • Between 209 and 206, Scipio defeated several Carthaginian forces and destroyed Carthage’s influence in Spain. • Elected consul in 205. • Given Sicily as his province; he invaded Africa. • Scipio won a few engagements in Africa. • Eventually, the Carthaginians recalled Hannibal. • At Zama (202), Scipio defeated Hannibal. Major Terms of Peace • • • • • Carthaginian fleet reduced to 10 triremes. Carthage paid Rome a 10,000 talent indemnity, 200 talents annually for 50 years. No war at all outside of Africa and no war within Africa without Roman permission. Carthaginian territory was limited to the land “within the Phoenician trenches.” But neither a Roman garrison nor a Roman imposed government was installed. Wars in the Balkans • • First Macedonian War (214-205). Philip V allied with Carthage. Second Macedonian War (200-196). War was decided by the Roman victory at Cynoscephalae (197). In 192, Antiochus III of Syria moved to take control of the region surrounding the Hellespont. Romans defeated Antiochus at Thermopylae (190). Third Macedonian War ended after Roman victory at Pydna (168). Macedon divided into 4 small republics. • • Roman Wars at mid-Century • In 146, the Achaean League declared war on Rome. The Romans subsequently sacked and destroyed Corinth. Carthaginian quarrel with Numidian king led to Roman demand for Carthage to disarm and move inland some miles. Carthage resisted; a 3 year siege followed: The Third Punic War (149-146). Scipio the Younger, who was accompanied by Polybius, presided over the destruction of the city of Carthage. The 50,000 survivors were sold as slaves. • • ...
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