c12romanempire - The Roman Empire: 27 BC to AD 565 The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Roman Empire: 27 BC to AD 565 The Julio-Claudians • • • • • Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero 27 BC — AD 14 14 — 37 37 — 41 41 — 54 54 — 68 • 69: Year of Four Emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitelius, Vespasian Flavians & “Good” Emperors • Vespasian 69 — 79 • Titus 79 — 81 • Domitian 81 — 96 • Nerva 96 — 98 • Trajan 98 — 117 • Hadrian 117 — 138 • Antoninus Pius 138 — 161 • Marcus Aurelius 161 — 180* *Last of the good emperors, end of the Roman Peace. Commodus to Septimius Severus • Commodus 180 — 192 • Pertinax & Julianus (both ruled briefly in) 193 • Septimius Severus… Severan Dynasty • • • • • Septimius Severus 193 — 211 Caracalla 211 — 217 (& Geta d. 211) Macrinus (Praetorian Prefect) 217-218 Elagabalus 218 — 222 Alexander Severus 222 — 235 Some Rulers During the Third Century Crisis • • • • • • • • Maximinus Thrax 235 — 238 Philip the Arabian 244 — 249 Decius 249 — 251 Valerian 253 — 260 Gallienus 253 — 268 Aurelian 270 — 275 Diocletian 284 — 305 Altogether, there were about 21 emperors from 235 to 284. Third-Century Crisis • Civil wars and assassinations. • Wars against a new Persian dynasty, the Sassanians. • Barbarian invasions, especially Goths and Franks. • Separatist movements: due to the inability of the Roman government to protect threatened areas. • Fiscal and monetary collapse. • Illyrian emperors…beginning with Claudius II from 268 — 270. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy • Diocletian 284 — 305 (Augustus in the east, mostly at Nicomedia). • Maximian 284 — 305 (Augustus in the west, mostly at Milan). • The two Caesars were added in 293. • Galerius d. 311 (Caesar in the east, at Sirmium) • Constantius Chlorus d. 306 (Caesar in the west, at Trier) • Diocletian and Maximian swore an oath to retire in June of 305. Reforms of Diocletian • Number of provinces greatly increased. • Two officials replaced the governor, separating administrative functions from military command. • Military commander: dux; governor: praeses • Provinces grouped into dioceses, dioceses into prefectures. • Increased size of army; fortified, really refortified, the frontiers. • Coinage & tax reform. • System of hereditary occupations installed. • Persecuted Christians. Early Christianity • Numbers of early Christians (ca. 35 AD)? • Letters of Paul. • Dating the Gospels. • Synoptic Gospels: Mark, Matthew, Luke. • John. • • • • • Nero and the first persecution. Pliny the Younger. Marcus Aurelius and the Montanists. Decius and Valerian. Gallienus and the “little peace of the church.” Last Persecution • On 2/24/303, Diocletian published an edict that re-ignited the persecutions. • After Diocletian’s retirement, Galerius became even more zealous in persecuting Christians. • One recent estimate is that between 3000 and 5000 Christians were martyred, with many thousands more suffering for their faith. • Persecutions were much worse in the east than in the west, in part because there were more Christians in the east. • In 311, Galerius issued the Edict of Toleration. Constantine I (306-337) • Son of Constantius I & son-in-law of Maximian. • Recognized by Galerius. • In 312, after Galerius’ death, Constantine marched on Rome, where his brother-in-law, Maxentius, was ruling. He defeated Maxentius at the battle of the Milvian Bridge. • Constantine’s biographer, Eusebius, recorded the story of his vision on the eve of the battle. Labarum or Christogram Constantine and the Church • Constantine and Licinius issued the so-called “Edict of Milan” in 313. • He “enriched the church with many things.” • Exempted one decurion family to hold office of bishop. • Established that bishops could hold court. • Built St. Peters’ Church on the Vatican. • Built St. John’s Lateran Church. • Got involved in the Donatist dispute & convened the Council of Arles (314). • Involved in Arian dispute and convened the Council of Nicaea (325). A Few of the Christological Controversies • Arianism, officially resolved at the Council of Nicaea (325). • Nestorianism, officially resolved at Council of Ephesus (431). • Monophysitism, officially resolved at Council of Chalcedon (451). Early Christian Monasticism • Monk, from monachus = “hermit.” • Antony and the Anchorites. • Pachomius and the Rule of Pachomius (d. ca. 348). • Three-fold oath: poverty, chastity, obedience (to the abbot). • Stylites: the pole-sitting saints. The Latin Fathers • Jerome (ca. 342-419): Translated Bible into Latin. • Ambrose (ca. 337/40-397): excommunicated the emperor Theodosius, friend of Augustine, opponent of Arianism. • Augustine of Hippo (354-430): author of Confessions, City of God. Theodosius I (379-395) • Theodosius almost died in 382. • Afterwards, he issued a series of decrees that effectively outlawed paganism and established Christianity as the official, or state, religion of the Roman Empire. • Excommunicated by Ambrose after incident at Thessalonica in 390. • On his death, the empire was never to be united again by a single ruler. His sons Arcadius (in the east) and Honorius (in the west) succeeded. Storm out of the East • The Huns. • Eastern (Greuthungi) & Western (Tervingi) Goths. • Hadrianople (378). • Theodosius and recovery. • Sacking of Rome (410). From 410 to about 430 • Athaulf , Constantius III and Galla Placidia. • Visigoths settled as Foederati in Aquitaine, the so-called Kingdom of Toulouse established (418). • Vandals crossed into Africa (429). Last Decades of Western Empire • • • • Weak emperors and barbarian patricians. Britain had slipped away. Effort to retake Africa in late 460s failed miserably. In 476, Odoacer (Odovacar) deposed the teen-aged Romulus Augustulus. • Clovis (481-511) became king of the Franks. • 489, eastern emperor sent Theodoric and the Ostrogoths into Italy to recover it from Odoacer. • Ostrogothic Italy would endure until the Gothic War (535-554). Boethius (480-525) • Magister Officiorum during Theodoric’s reign. • Organized the Seven Liberal Arts: Trivium Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic Quadrivium Arithmetic Astronomy Geometry Music • Translated works of Plato, Aristotle and Porphyry. • On the Consolation of Philosophy. • Schoolmaster of Europe. Cassiodorus (c. 490-583) • Quaestor and later Magister Officiorum. Most famous as an author an preserver of Latin literature. • Variae. • [Lost] History of the Goths (known through: Jordanes, Getica). • On Divine and Secular Learning (also known as the Institutiones, c. 562). • Founded monastery of Vivarium at Squillace, possibly in 534. Reign of Justinian I (527-565) • Nika riot: 532 • Wars of reconquest • Vandal War: 533 • Gothic War: 535-554 • Spanish Campaign: 550 • Rebuilding of church of Hagia Sophia • Promulgation of Corpus Iuris Civilis: • Code (529) • Institutes (533) • Digest (533) ...
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