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Unformatted text preview: Late Merovingian and Early Carolingian Age Monasticism in Gaul and Ireland
Honoratus – Lerins ca 400‐410. John Cassion – St Victor at Marseille – Institutes. St Martin and Marmoutier at Tours. Irish Monasticism. Patrick in Ireland (ca. 431); importance of monastic foundations; abbots replaced bishops as most important leader of the church. • Columba and Iona (565), died ca. 597. • Columban of Bangor (d. 613) founded Bobbio & Luxeuil, his disciples, many others (e.g., St. Gall). • • • • • Benedict of Nursia (d. 543).
• Founded Monte Cassino. • Benedictine rule was not as rigid as eastern rules, not self abuse, but self discipline. • Authority of abbot, he answered to god…self‐ contained, no outside interference except in cases of a great scandal; abbot elected for life. • 4 hours in opus dei, 4 of individual prayer, 6 hours spent in physical labor (scriptorium qualified). Gregory I (590‐604)
• Before becoming pope, he had founded his own monastery and had served as papal ambassador to Constantinople. • He promoted cathedral art as “scriptures for the unlettered;” hagiography for the literate. • He perceived that if the papacy was to make good its claim to be the head of Christianity, then the pope would have to turn his attention to the north. • In 596, Gregory sent Augustine to Canterbury. Anglo‐Irish Christianity
• Oswy invited Irish & Roman Christians to Northumbria to debate their differences, which included different methods of calculating Easter and rules regarding monasteries. • Settled at Synod of Whitby (664). • Theodore of Tarsus became archbishop of Canterbury (669), organized regular dioceses. • Anglo‐Irish church became center of learning and missionary activity in northern Europe. • Willobrord’s mission to the Frisians (ca. 690). Late Merovingian Kingdom
• Merovingian dynasty had ruled in Gaul since the days of Clovis (486‐511). • Many of the later Merovingians came to the throne young and died young, remembered as the “do nothing kings.” • They had given much of the old fiscal lands of the Roman state that the family had controlled to the church. By doing so, they had eroded the resources on which their power depended. Frankish Church
• By the mid‐seventh century, the Frankish church was largely in disarray: lack of parish priests, gross superstition, and aristocratic interference in monasteries and ecclesiastical elections were normal. • Important change began with the introduction of Irish monasticism to the continent by Columban. • This led to monastic immunity from taxation and from local Episcopal control. But these changes took time to take hold. Late Merovingian Dynasty
• Division into 3 kingdoms: Neustria, Austrasia, Burgundy. • Confusion between public administration & private estates, both in secular arena and in the church. • Mayor of the palace (major domo). • Large percentage of land in Frankish Kingdoms belonged to the Church…or clerical families. • Rise of local aristocracies.
• The Count‐Bishop. • The bannum (ban): right to tax, judge, command. Carolingian Mayors
• Pepin of Heristal: in 687, at Tertry, his victory assured Austrasian supremacy. • His son, Charles Martel (714‐741). • Pepin the Short, from 741‐751 as mayor; 751‐ 768 as king (crowned by St. Boniface). • Supported reform of the church and depended on the church for educated clerks and resources. St. Boniface (Winfrid)
• Successor of Willobrord and the missionary to Germany. His mission lasted from 718 to 753. • Reformed the Frankish church, began to introduce regular parishes, established new bishoprics. • Church must do its part; much land given as precarious tenancies to the vassi dominici (vassals of the Carolingians). • Tithe given to church in exchange for losing the (entire) income from these lands. Charlemagne (768‐814)
• Palace school and Alcuin. • The capitularies. • Eventual conquest of Saxony and eastward expansion of Frankish influence. • Pepin and Charles and the Lombards. • Leo III and the resurrection of the empire on Christmas day 800. • Carolingian government: Charles governed from horseback; the missi dominici, and the counts. Carolingian Renaissance
• Few pre‐ninth century Latin manuscripts (Ms) survive today from France, Germany, or the British Isles. • 100 from British Isles, 500 from the continent. • Of these, 400 date to the eighth century, 200 of these to between 750 and 800. • Altogether, some 7000 Ms survive from the Carolingian period • We know of more than 60 authors from this period. • Charters (legal documents) also survive in greater numbers during this period. We have: 53 from the reign of Pepin; 262 from Charlemagne’s; about 350‐ 400 from the reign of Louis the Pious; 500 from France in the reign of Charles the Bald. Carolingian Renaissance (concluded)
• Caroline miniscule: consistent systems of punctuation and spacing emerge. • Tours Bible (800?). This restored translation of Jerome’s became the common bible (Vulgate). • The Anglo‐Saxon monk, Alcuin, was the head of the palace school, and largely responsible for both Caroline miniscule and the restoration of the bible. Later Carolingians
• Louis the Pious (814‐840) divided the realm among his three sons:
• Louis the German: king of E. Francia (Germany, or Austrasia) 840‐876; • Charles the Bald: king of W. Francia (France, or Neustria) 840‐877; • Lothair: Emperor and king of Lotharingia‐‐Lorraine) 840‐855. • Treaty of Verdun (843). End of the Carolingian Dynasty
• After the death of Charles the Bald, Carolingians declined. • By the early tenth century, Carolingians disappeared in Germany. • Many small dynasts, often with Carolingian blood, competed for both the imperial crown and the lordship of several small splinter kingdoms that arose in the Alpine regions. • The Kings of France maintained their position but lost much of their power; finally deposed in 987 by a new dynasty, the Capetians. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2010 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Anderson during the Winter '10 term at Wayne State University.
- Winter '10