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Unformatted text preview: I. The Vikings. A. Danes, Norwegians, Swedes. 1. Traders and raiders. B. Causes of expansion: population surplus, easy pickings? 1. River system of Gaul provided the Norsemen with an avenue. 2. 40-60 men per ship, 3 or 4 ships provided a potent armed force. C. Early raids: Lindisfarne in 793, Iona in 802, 806. 1. Raids unsettled agricultural life, several regions were largely deserted. 2. Contributed to the near complete fragmentation of Carolingian polity. 3. Extension of vassalage, protection of helpless, growth of castles. D. By mid-ninth century, occasional raids had turned into settlement of new lands. 1. Ca. 850's - large-scale settlements in Ireland. 2. In 865, a “great army” landed in England. 3. In 911, Rolf the Granger founded Normandy. 4. Norse settled Iceland in 874; in 1000, Icelanders voted to adopt Christianity. 5. In 984, Eric the Red discovered Greenland; in 1000, Leif Ericsson reached North America. E. Eleventh century Viking expeditions were largely dynastic in character: Danish royal family sat on English throne from 1016-1042. Harold of Norway was killed trying to conquer England in 1066. 1. Kingdom of Dublin destroyed at Clontarf in 1014. F. The Swedes and Russia. 1. Baltic down coast to Russian rivers. 2. Novgorod, Kiev--kingdom of the Rus. 3. Links to Constantinople: Varangian guard. II. Anglo-Saxon England. A. By 878, much of England had been conquered by Vikings, essentially all of the old Anglo-Saxon kingdoms save Wessex (which also included Kent). 1. In 917, this occupied territory was nominally incorporated into Wessex, but it remained culturally separate--the Danelaw. 1 B. Alfred the Great (871-899), king of Wessex. In 879, he defeated the Danes, stops their advance, began to consolidate control over most of England, by 950, the kings of Wessex deserve the title of kings of England. 2. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle started in Alfred's day, Alfred translated Bede, Augustine’s Soliloquies, and Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. 3. "There are few lives in history which reach the level of this king of the Dark Ages" (Previte-Orton). 4. Voluminous collection of laws, general levy (fryd), burghs. C. Under his heirs, royal administration began to revive. 1. 2. Shires (counties) and hundreds: judicial as well as administrative units—Shire courts met twice yearly, hundred courts monthly. English counts were called aldermen, (later, Earls), counties usually contained many shires, so local agents, originally estate managers, became the local representative of the alderman, and, hence, royal power (shire-reeve, that is sheriff). 1. D. Decline of Anglo-Saxon kingdom. 1. Ethelred the ill-counseled and Danegeld. 2. Sven, Cnut and the Northern Kingdom (England, Denmark, Norway). 3. Edward the Confessor: restoration of the House of Wessex—1042-1066. III. Normandy. A. Rolf did homage to Charles the Simple in 911. For most of the tenth century Vikings could find a haven in their travels, many became men of the Norman dukes (dukes of the Northmen). B. The dukes kept control over their duchy by creating few counts, but many non-hereditary viscounts. C. Maintained control over the local church: Bishopric of Rouen became almost a family possession. During the reign of William the Conqueror, his uncle was bishop of Rouen, his half-brother was bishop of Bayeux, and his aunt was abbess of the famed convent of Montivilliers. D. Prolific fecundity, from 1016 a steady stream of Norman younger sons went abroad, 2 especially to Italy, to seek their fortunes. E. In 1035, the eight year-old William the Bastard (Conqueror) became Duke of Normandy. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Early years were spent one step in front of an assassin’s dagger. With aid from Henry Capet, king of France, he overthrew his rebellious barons. Aided Cluniac reform movement and founded new establishments. Enfeoffed about 1800 knights to ensure an army of 800. His marriage to Matilda of Flanders upset the political balance and the king turned against him (1054). By 1058, William had defeated the French King. 6. Edward the Confessor married Emma, the aunt of William; once Edward became King, he promised to make William heir to the throne: Edward had no children and had spent most of his exile in Normandy. F. Norman Conquest of England. 1. Harold, the Earl of Wessex, took the crown on the death of Edward. 2. Harold defeated Harold of Norway at Stamford Bridge in September of 1066. 3. He was defeated at Hastings in October by William. 4. On Christmas day 1066, William was crowned King of the English. 5. He still faced several rebellions. G. William's England. 1. 2. He claimed to be Edward's successor, thus, Anglo-Saxon resistance was used as a pretext to dispossess the native aristocracy. Used existing Anglo-Saxon traditions: Sheriffs were usually Norman, and barons were given extensive powers of local self-government, the king kept control of the county courts. Courts of Inquest: neighbors sworn to give truthful testimony. The Domesday Survey: an inquest into holdings and obligations of all landholders in England (began in 1086); all but London and the north was completed. Immensity of task, the first such survey since Roman times, the last until the modern age. 3. 4. H. Henry I (1100-1135): exchequer and Pipe Rolls, treasury and accounting procedure; England, with its one million, produced more revenue for Henry than did France, with its twenty million, did for its king. 1. Itinerant judges. 2. Diminution of sheriff's power. 3. Twice annual accounting to the exchequer. 3 IV. The Normans in Italy and the Mediterranean. A. In 1016 a band of returning Norman pilgrims agreed to recruit some of their countrymen for the ruler of Salerno. B. Southern Italy was divided into the Papal States; three Lombard enclaves: Benevento, Capua, Salerno; several Moslem states; the Byzantines controlled the ports and much of the countryside in the heel and toe (Calabria and Apulia respectively), and three republics: Amalfi, Gaeta and Naples. 1. In 1029, Rainulf became Count of Aversa--first Norman lordship in Italy. C. About 1030, the sons of Tancred de Hauteville began to arrive: William, Drogo, and Humphrey all became, in succession, the Count of Apulia. A Fourth son, Robert Guiscard, occupied Calabria. 1. “This famous man, a fair-blue-eyed giant, who was perhaps the most gifted soldier and statesman of his age, without faith or mercy, devoured by an insatiable ambition, led, like his fellows, the life of a robber chief till he had carved himself a dominion by his invincible atrocities” (Previte-Orton). D. In the Treaty of Melfi (1059), Pope Nicholas II--on the strength of the Donation of Constantine--granted Calabria, Apulia and Sicily (at the time still occupied by Saracens) to Robert and to Richard of Aversa, the Principality of Capua. 1. Thus the Normans became vassals of the papacy, and later popes never forgot that these lands were papal fiefs. 2. Robert entrusted the task of subduing Sicily to a fifth brother, Roger, a task that took years. 3. In 1071, Robert conquered Bari, the last Byzantine port in Italy; by 1080, Capua, Benevento and Salerno all fell to Guiscard. 4. Robert died in his seventies (1085); his son and grandson remained duke but their power was circumscribed by the large number of independent vassals. 5. Bohemond, his ablest son, left on the First Crusade and became Prince of Antioch. 6. By 1091, Roger had secured Sicily. 7. Count Roger II (1105-1154), king from 1130, established Norman Sicily as a center of learning and home to one of the first European universities (Salerno). 4 ...
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