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Unformatted text preview: I. Early phase of Church reform. A. The decline of the papacy during the waning years of the 9th century also resulted in a serious ebb in the prestige of the papacy. B. The Eigenkirche (proprietary church). 1. Secular clergy were pretty much an appendage to lay nobility. 2. Regular clergy come from monasteries, many monasteries drop monastic rule and become orders of Canons. C. Cluny--founded in 909 by Duke William the Pious of Burgundy. Cluny became a model of rule (Benedictine) observance. Many other monastic communities took inspiration from the Cluniacs and invited them to reform their own establishments. The rule, however, was reemphasized: no labor; Cluniac monks spent their days praying, educating, and in administration. The abbot of Cluny headed not only the monastery at Cluny, but also all of the “sister” or "daughter" houses that were reformed or founded by Cluniacs. D. The abbots of Cluny were a long-lived lot, their reputation for piety, the wealth of Cluny, and their connections (Hugh, for example, was godfather to the German Emperor Henry IV) gave them the prestige to enforce the discipline they sought. 1. Berno: 909-926. 2. Odo: 926-944. 3. Aymard: 944-964. 4. Maiolus: 964-994. 5. Odilo: 994-1049. 6. Hugh: 1049-1109. II. Penetration of Christian Ideals in Medieval Society. A. Piety among laity: e.g., foundation of reformed monasteries; saintly kings (like St. Henry II & Henry III); nobles habitually went on pilgrimage and often entered monasteries on "retirement". B. The Truce of God (especially in S. France & Burgundy), under the
1 influence of Cluny. 1. Role in developing crusading ideal: violence to be directed outward. C. Thus formal devotion was no longer enough to set off clergy from laity; growth of personal religious experiences, the pastoral ideal, and the poverty of the church. D. The prestige of Cluny, high already by the 2nd half of the 10th century, remained high because the papacy once again became the prize of the Roman nobility after the death of Sylvester II in 1003. And, although both Henry II (1002-1024) and Henry III (1039-1056) were pious men, devoutly interested in reform, they had many other concerns besides Rome, and, in fact, aided meaningful reform throughout the empire. E. Monarchs were natural allies of the church in its efforts to reform: both church and king had an interest in order and in restraining the ambitions and feuds of the lay nobility. Monarchs needed trained and literate administrators, only the church could supply them. F. But as reform went deeper, expectations rose... 1. Holy monks/clean church; many fanatical reformers achieved position and influence. Some claimed that the only valid law was canon law. 2. Simony was widespread: simony = buying church office, either from the bishop or abbot who controlled parish or office, but most often from the family of the founder of the church or abbey. Often the abbot one paid was a descendant of the founder's family. 3. Serious critics of simony also found objectionable the ceremony of lay investiture. Foundation of German imperial power, the king asserted right to invest bishops (& abbots) with symbols of office (ring and crozier), thus, gaining an effective veto, homage—clergyman becomes vassal of monarch before taking possession of estates associated with a particular post. III. Reform of the papacy.
2 A. Questions concerning the authority and election of popes, simony, lay investiture, doctrine, and political realities all combined to embark the papacy on a vigorous course of reform during the 11th century. B. Rome as mentioned witnessed a protracted struggle among a handful of noble families for the See of Peter. The Tusculan popes were not necessarily indifferent to reform, but they were involved in building a state. The last (Benedict IX) was driven from Rome by his rival (Sylvester III); in frustration Benedict sold the papacy to a third man (Gregory VI). Henry III felt compelled to intervene. C. From 1046-1057 Henry appointed 4 successive German popes, the third, his kinsman, Leo IX (1049-54), had the greatest impact. D. Leo brought new men and new ideas to Rome. The Tusculan popes had not viewed themselves as the leaders of Christendom; their focus remained essentially Italian, although they occasionally intervened in a matter of doctrine. The newcomers had both a program and exalted views about the moral authority of the popes. E. Humbert (ca.1010-1061) erudite Greek scholar, legate to Constantinople in 1054 (Humbert & the Patriarch mutually excommunicated one another), resulting in the permanent schism between Greek and Latin Christianity. His views on the clergy came close to resurrecting the Donatist heresy. In 1059 Humbert succeeded in promulgating a decree that stated that neither the Emperor nor the Roman people had a voice in the election of a Pope. That right belonged to the College of Cardinals: cardinal deacons, priests & bishops--the clergy of the parishes in the vicinity or Rome. F. Led by Humbert (1059), the reformers began to institute their program, taking the ancient canonical practice of choosing popes away from the "people and clergy of Rome" and giving it to the cardinals. New militant papacy needed muscle; in August 1059 the Norman brigands of southern Italy were made vassals of the pope and received as fee, Capua, Calabria, Apulia, and Sicily, lands to which the papacy had no claim beyond the forged Donation of Constantine.
3 G. In 1073 Hildebrand was elected--Gregory VII (1073-85). He was certainly one of the 3 great medieval popes, not an original thinker but a quick synthesizer. He had a rabid hatred of the wealthy, was paranoid and hysterical, yet, tireless and implacable in pursuit of his exalted view of papal power. 1. Henry IV had been involved in civil war, the German barons had used the king’s minority to strip the royal house of whatever lands and titles they could, and Henry, who was vigorous and shrewd, had been engaged in rebuilding the power of the German monarchy since he had come of age. 2. Gregory informed Henry by letter (1075) that lay investiture was contrary to canon law. Desist or face excommunication. Henry replied angrily, Gregory deposed and excommunicated Henry, the German church first supported Henry, but Gregory threatened to excommunicate the entire German nation. He inspired revolt among Henry's enemies and began a journey to Germany for the express purpose of electing a new king. 3. In the winter of 1077, Henry met Gregory at Canossa (Henry’s cousin Matilda's castle). For 3 days Henry in cassock and barefoot begged for absolution, Gregory relented. 4. Henry again deposed in March, but Gregory had forfeited the support of the German church, Henry presided over the election of an anti-pope, Gregory over the election of an anti-king. 5. In 1080, Henry invaded Italy, and drove Gregory from Rome into exile among his Norman vassals in the south, he died there in 1085. 6. German anti-pope Clement III reigned until 1100. 7. After short papacy of Victor III, Urban II (1087-1099) became Pope. He recovered Rome in 1097 and remained implacable in his enmity towards Henry IV. He gained much prestige and used his French connections to secure the beginning of the crusades; he was certainly cognizant that by getting many turbulent knights out of Europe he would aid his efforts to bring the lay rulers of Europe to heel over the issue of lay investiture. 8. He even denied the right of a lord or monarch to receive homage for the fiefs that often came with clerical office.
4 H. The resolution of the Investiture Controversy came (on the continent) in 1122 with the Concordat of Worms. 1. This was similar to the agreement reached with kings of England around 1107: a. the king lost right to invest with clerical office, but received homage for public aspects of office and attendant properties; b. king retained influence and the pope could remove those clerics he deemed unworthy. 5 ...
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