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c16churchreform - I Early phase of Church reform A The...

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1 I. Early phase of Church reform. A. The decline of the papacy during the waning years of the 9th century also resulted in a serious ebb in the prestige of the papacy. B. The Eigenkirche (proprietary church). 1. Secular clergy were pretty much an appendage to lay nobility. 2. Regular clergy come from monasteries, many monasteries drop monastic rule and become orders of Canons. C. Cluny--founded in 909 by Duke William the Pious of Burgundy. Cluny became a model of rule (Benedictine) observance. Many other monastic communities took inspiration from the Cluniacs and invited them to reform their own establishments. The rule, however, was reemphasized: no labor; Cluniac monks spent their days praying, educating, and in administration. The abbot of Cluny headed not only the monastery at Cluny, but also all of the “sister” or "daughter" houses that were reformed or founded by Cluniacs. D. The abbots of Cluny were a long-lived lot, their reputation for piety, the wealth of Cluny, and their connections (Hugh, for example, was god- father to the German Emperor Henry IV) gave them the prestige to enforce the discipline they sought. 1. Berno: 909-926. 2. Odo: 926-944. 3. Aymard: 944-964. 4. Maiolus: 964-994. 5. Odilo: 994-1049. 6. Hugh: 1049-1109. II. Penetration of Christian Ideals in Medieval Society. A. Piety among laity: e.g., foundation of reformed monasteries; saintly kings (like St. Henry II & Henry III); nobles habitually went on pilgrimage and often entered monasteries on "retirement". B. The Truce of God (especially in S. France & Burgundy), under the
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2 influence of Cluny. 1. Role in developing crusading ideal: violence to be directed outward. C. Thus formal devotion was no longer enough to set off clergy from laity; growth of personal religious experiences, the pastoral ideal, and the poverty of the church.
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