c18crusades - I The Crusades(First through Third A In the...

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Unformatted text preview: I. The Crusades (First through Third). A. In the early eleventh century, a new tribe of Turks, the Seljuks settled in Khurasan. 1. Many Turks had long served Moslems as slaves, officials and soldiers; Turks had even founded Muslim dynasties earlier. 2. By 1055 the Seljuks had united Persia under their rule, and had rescued the Caliph from secular authority; the Turkish leader became known as the Sultan, the right hand of the defender of the faithful. 3. The Turkish leader, Alp Arslan, turned toward Byzantium and, after conquering Armenia, met, defeated and captured the emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert in 1071. 4. Also in 1071, Jerusalem fell to the Turks (Egyptians had controlled it). 5. Antioch fell in 1084-85. B. In 1081 Alexius I Comnenus (d. 1118) became emperor in Constantinople. 1. Anna, his daughter, wrote an extant biography, The Alexiad. 2. When he took power, most of Asia Minor had been lost; he recovered many of the western and northern coastal regions. 3. He revived the state, but at a price. 4. He became acquainted with Robert of Flanders who stayed briefly in Constantinople on his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He asked him for troops; then Alexius asked Pope Urban II (1094). 5. By the middle of the 1090s, the Seljuk generation that had conquered so much of the Byzantine state was dead and their heirs were disunited. Alexius hoped to use western warriors to recover lost Byzantine territories. What he got was something else. C. The First Crusade: preached by Urban II at Piacenza and Clermont in 1095. 1. Papacy and monarchs were involved in the Investiture Controversy. 2. Recent crusade in Spain had recovered Toledo. 3. Sicily also had recently been reconquered from Muslims. D. First wave of this crusade lacked any real important leader. 1. 2. 3. 4. Peter the Hermit became one of their leaders. The crusaders attacked Jewish communities in the Rhineland. Plundered their way through the Hungarian countryside. Alexius was appalled, he shipped them across to Anatolia and advised against engaging the Turks; they did not listen and were massacred in 1096. E. Meanwhile, the main crusading armies assembled in Constantinople. Not at all what Alexius had hoped for: he was looking for individual warriors to integrate into Byzantine forces and hoped to undertake the reconquest of Asia Minor; he got armies of vassals, sworn to their own lords and looking to conquer Jerusalem and to carve out lordships for themselves. F. The major leaders included: 1. Count Hugh of Vermandois, brother of king of France. 2. Duke Robert of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror). 3. Count Robert II of Flanders, nephew of William. 4. Stephen of Blois, son-in-law of William. 5. Count Raymond of Toulouse. 6. Duke Godfrey of Lorraine (known as Godfrey of Bouillon). 7. Bohemond of Taranto (the son of Robert Guiscard). G. In 1097 Baldwin, the brother of Godfrey, conquered Edessa and became its Count. H. In 1097-1098, Antioch fell to crusaders; Bohemond was elected prince after he had led during the defeat of a now united Turkish relief force. I. In 1099, after a siege and a massacre of thousands, Jerusalem was taken. 1. Godfrey was made Lord Protector of Jerusalem. 2. After his death, Baldwin became King of Jerusalem. J. Crusader states controlled only the coastal regions of Syria, the interior remained Islamic, disunity, wars with Byzantium. 1. The Europeans referred to the territories they had taken as: “Outremer” (“Overseas”). 2. Rise of military orders—Knights of the Temple of Solomon and Knights of the Hospital of St. John. K. Edessa, retaken by the Turks, inspired the Second Crusade, (1147). L. In 1187, shortly after Saladin’s victory at Hattin, Jerusalem once again fell. M. This led to the Third Crusade. Three Christian rulers participated in it: 1. Richard I of England. 2. Philip II Augustus of France. 3. Frederick Barbarossa of Germany. 4. In the long-run it accomplished little. N. However, the coastal city of Acre was established as the new capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It would remain the center of the kingdom until it was conquered by the Muslims in 1291. II. King John of England (1199-1216). A. John was the younger brother and mortal enemy of Richard; he tried to insure that Richard never returned from captivity in Germany. B. John's reign is unattractive: 1. He lost most of Angevin France to Philip Augustus. 2. He quarreled with Innocent III and only resolved it by declaring England a papal fief. 3. He alienated his barons to the extent that they revolted and forced him to grant the Magna Carta (1215) insuring their rights and circumscribing the power of the monarch. 4. Provisions of the Magna Carta established that: a. barons must consent to certain types of taxes; b. one could not be imprisoned without trial and the further right of all to a fair trial; c. “in England law ruled not [royal] will.” III. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) was, without a doubt, the most powerful and the greatest of the medieval popes. A. Lothar dei Conti was the youngest serving cardinal when elected as pope Innocent III. B. Innocent intervened in the struggle for the German/Holy Roman imperial throne. 1. First by supporting Otto of Brunswick (who was John of England’s nephew) against Philip of Swabia and excommunicating Philip. 2. In 1208, Innocent agreed to recognize Philip and crowned him emperor. Shortly after, Philip was killed over a private grudge and Innocent supported Otto again. 3. In 1209, Otto was crowned emperor and proceeded to invade Sicily. Young Frederick II, Sicily’s King, was Innocent’s ward and the nephew of Philip of Swabia. 4. Innocent then supported Frederick's candidacy. 5. Eventually, Frederick’s ally, Philip II of France, defeated Otto at Bovines while Philip’s son defeated John of England, both in 1214. 6. In 1215, Innocent deposed Otto and recognized Frederick as king and emperor. C. Innocent excommunicated the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade. 1. They had attacked the Christian town of Zara and then had taken Constantinople. D. Innocent also was involved in the beginning of the Albigensian Crusade, a crusade launched against the Cathari, a sect that the Church regarded as heretics in southern France. The notorious Inquisition began as part of this struggle. E. Innocent recognized the Franciscans and the Dominicans. He clearly planned to use these orders of mendicant friars in the struggle against heresy, by promoting them as role models of orthodox behavior. F. Although Innocent was an ally of Philip of France, he excommunicated him over his divorce from his queen. G. Most famously, he quarreled with John of England over the appointment of Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. 1. Stephen was a cardinal and eminently qualified. 2. But John refused to accept the papal nominee. 3. John ejected the monks from Canterbury, and, when Innocent placed the whole kingdom under interdict (1208), John confiscated the lands and riches of the English church. 4. For several years John prevailed, ruling with an iron hand; in 1213, Innocent convinced Philip of France to lead a crusade to depose the excommunicated king of England. John completely surrendered to the papal legate and became a vassal of the papacy: Innocent asserted his absolute rule over the church, and had reduced a kingdom to vassalage. 5. Innocent also reduced Portugal and Aragon to vassalage. H. It is under Innocent that Papal administration becomes permanently divided into departments; the complete extant papal registers begin with him. 1. Court procedures were developed, including elaborate rules for detecting forgeries (a real problem in the medieval period); also rules developed for hearing appeals. 2. Innocent's jurists organized the bulls, letters and rulings of the pope's since Gratian's Decretum (1141). 3. His entire papacy was a practical expression of his belief in the doctrine of the plenitude of papal power—he constantly made law by enforcing his will on any and all. I. The culmination of his pontificate came in 1215 with the Fourth Lateran Council. Among other things the council: 1. Established the duty of confession once a year. 2. Forbade clergy to participate in trials by ordeal. 3. Regularized methods for election to bishoprics and the basic qualifications for the priesthood. 4. Forbade the creation of new monastic rules; established a type of oversight committee since traditional monastic autonomy often led to abuse and corruption. 5. Yet his legacy was a papacy absorbed in temporal affairs and in secular methods which were a bane to the spiritual mission of the papacy. 6. Even before his death, critics of the church were referring to the Papal office itself as the Anti-Christ, an attitude still found among some Protestants today. ...
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