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Genetics_Vocabulary - Genetic Vocabulary Terms allele a...

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Genetic Vocabulary Terms allele – a type or version of a gene. i.e. brown or blonde alleles of the hair color gene. crossing over – also called recombination, this occurs during Prophase I of Meiosis and it is when non-sister chromatids (chromatids from homologous chromosomes) exchange regions of DNA. dihybrid – This is an organism which is heterozygous (has two different alleles) for two different genes. diploid – An organism which had 2n chromosomes, this means that diploid organisms have two alleles for every gene because they have two copies of each gene, one on each homologous chromosome. These alleles can be the same or different. dominant – This is an allele of a gene which shows its trait in a heterozygous organism. gene – This is a region of DNA in a chromosome which typically codes for a protein. While the protein which the gene is coding for is specific, there can be variations in the protein, these variations are called alleles. genotype – This is a genetic description of an organisms. This says which alleles an organism possesses. Description such as homozygous (AA or aa) and heterozygous (Aa) are examples of genotypes. haploid – This is a cell which does not have homologous pairs of chromosomes. The cell is 1n. Gametes are always haploid. That means that it only has one allele of each gene. heterozygote – This is an organism which is heterozygous (has two different alleles) at the gene being analyzed or observed.
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