Midterm_2_Review_mcdb_1al - Midterm 2 Review I. Cells:...

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Midterm 2 Review I. Cells: Fundamental units of life ====>know cell theory and implications! 1. Prokaryotic (small and more primitive) Do not contain membrane bound organelles examples: bacteria, archea COMPONENTS: 1. nucleoid: dark region in the cell containing DNA and protein (bacterial DNA is one long circular plasmid), not membrane bound 2. Ribosomes: prtn synthesis, free in cytoplasm/cytosol 3. Cell walls: outside plasma membrane ex. peptidoglycan 4. Flagella: complex prtn structure for swimming 2. Eukaryotic contains membrane bound organelles examples: plant, animal, fungi ORGANELLES 1. nucleus -contains DNA wound on histone proteins, condensing forming chromosomes -site of DNA replication, transcription and mRNA processing -nucleolus: dark region in nucleus, the site of rRNA synth and ribosome assembly -nuclear envelope: double membrane surrounding nucleus, continuous with the ER -Nuclear pore: complex structure with many protein, highly regulates what goes in and out of the nucleus 2. Ribosome -site of protein synthesis (translation) -may be free in cytoplasm or embedded in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER), mitochondria, chloroplast 3. Mitochondria -site of cellular respiration (breakdown of glucose for ATP) -double membrane >inner membrane= electron transport chain with proton pump >matrix= site of citric acid cycle, DNA, ribosomes >outer membrane= forms the intermembrane space where for the proton gradient 4. Plastid: plants and protists a. Chloroplast -site of photosynthesis, harvest light energy into glucose -double membrane w/thylakoids, grana, stroma (know each of these) review: photsystem I, II, cyclic/ non cyclic electron transport, z- scheme, photophosphorylation b. Peroxisomes: detoxifying organelle, collects toxins like hydrogen peroxide c. Glyoxysomes: plants only, coverts lipids to carbohydrates 5. Vacuoles: plants and protist -large membrane bound, filled with water, waste, toxic compounds, anthocyanains, enzymes -responsible for the turgor pressure of plant cells (makes plant cells crisp/ full of water)
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This note was uploaded on 10/08/2010 for the course MCDB MCDB 1A taught by Professor Senghuilow during the Summer '09 term at UCSB.

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Midterm_2_Review_mcdb_1al - Midterm 2 Review I. Cells:...

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