Biochem2 - Macromolecules: What is a cell composed of?...

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Macromolecules: What is a cell composed of? Table 3.1 Building Blocks of Organisms Fatty acids Lipids Figure 3-3 Substances found in living tissues How do we build our macromolecules? Figure 3-4 Condensation and hydrolysis of polymers Condensation- dehydration reactions require energy input: ATP
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Building macromolecules condensation/dehydration rxns require energy. Figure 6-5 ATP Lipids Cell membranes plasma membrane on outside of cell Organelles nucleus, mitochondria, ER, Golgi, lysosomes, etc Important energy storage material Basic units are fatty acids and glycerol Figure 3-19 Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Differences between different Fatty Acids: •Length (usually 14, 16, 18) •Saturation/Unsaturation PALMITATE SATURATED LINOLEIC ACID UNSATURATED
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Figure 3-18 Synthesis of a triglyceride (aka, a triacylglycerol) Glycerol + 3 fatty acids + 3 ATP --> a triglyceride (3 condensation/dehydration reactions) What are triglycerides used for? Very important form of stored energy can be broken down to smaller and smaller pieces releasing energy for cells to use along the way They have almost no charge asymmetry so they are VERY insoluble in cytoplasm coalesce into “oil droplets” in cytoplasm In adipocytes (large “fat cells”)
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Biochem2 - Macromolecules: What is a cell composed of?...

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