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marx_tech_2009 - How capitalism develops technology...

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How capitalism develops technology, creating the economic “take-off,” later economists called it Like Tocqueville, Marx’s aims to explain how and why people work so hard in modernity, and produce so much more than earlier societies did BUT Tocqueville: People in democracies honor work, rather than scorn it as previous societies did. They want to be productive. They also want to compete so they can be first among equals. The result is a rising tide that can raise all boats. Marx: No, Alexis, you’ve been fed a line, and you swallowed it whole. Constant competition is forced upon people from above, from the bourgeoisie. The poor don’t reap the benefits! Your “rising tide” will raise all boats ONLY AFTER THE REVOLUTION . However, in the meantime, capitalism develops both the “ means of production ” so that socialism will eventually be possible
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Earlier eras’ justifications for extracting the surplus Previous ruling classes did not have to compete the same way that capitalist producers do:
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