img047 - Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their Functions...

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Unformatted text preview: Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their Functions Cell Nucleus Large structure surrounded by Control center of the cell, double membrane; contains contains genetic information T nucleolus and chromosomes coded in DNA Chromosomes Composed of a complex of DNA Contain genes (units of and protein known as chromatin; hereditary information) that condense during cell division govern structure and activity of cell Cytoplasmic Organelles Description Plasma membrane Membrane boundary of the cell Encloses cell contents; regulates movement of materials in and out of cell; helps maintain cell shape Ribosomes RNA and Protein; some attached Synthesize polypeptides in both to ER, some free in cytosol prokaryotes and eukaryotes Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of internal membranes Lipid synthesis; drug extending through cytoplasm; detoxification; calcium storage lacks ribosomes on outer surface Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of internal membranes Manufactures proteins extending through cytoplasm; ribosomes stud outer surface Golgi body Stacks of flattened membrane Modifies proteins; packages sacs proteins; sorts other proteins to vacuoles and other organelles Lysosomes Membranous sacs (in animals) Contain enzymes that break down ingested materials, secretions, wastes Vacuoles Membranous sacs (in plants) Store materials, wastes, water Mitochondria Consists of two membranes Site of most reactions of cellular respiration; transformation of energy originating from glucose or lipids into ATP energy Plastids Double—membrane structure; Chloroplasts are site of chloroplasts contain chlorophyll photosynthesis; chlorophyll captures light energy; C02 to carbohydrate. ...
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