Bio 102 notes - Ch 25, 29, 30, 31

Bio 102 notes - Ch 25, 29, 30, 31 - Kingdom Protista...

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Unformatted text preview: Kingdom Protista (Protozoa) Chapter 25 KEY CONCEPTS Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, most of which are microscopic Mostly unicellular eukaryotic organisms that live in aquatic environments KEY CONCEPTS Protists vary in body plan (unicellular, colonial, coenocytic, multicellular), method of motility (pseudopodia, cilia, flagella-[9 + 2 microtubular] formation), nutrition type (autotrophic, heterotrophic), and mode of reproduction (asexual, sexual) Kingdom Protista Algal protists: Green algae, diatoms, brown algae (last semester) Protozoan Protists: Zooflagellates Ciliates Apicomplexans Foraminiferans Actinopods (radiolarians) amoebas Zooflagellates 1 Mostly unicellular heterotrophs Move by whiplike flagella Polyphyletic separated into several monophyletic groups Zooflagellates 2 Diplomonads: with a deep (excavated) oral groove Diplomonads have one or two nuclei no mitochondria no Golgi complex up to eight flagella Giardia (Fig 25-5a) Trichonympha (Fig 25-5b) Zooflagellates 3 Euglenoids are zooflagellates with disclike cristae in mitochondria Euglenoids are unicellular and flagellate some are photosynthetic (e.g. Euglena) Trypanosoma causes African sleeping sickness Trypanosome (Fig 25-6) Ciliates 1 move by hairlike cilia (9 x 2 microtubule arrangement) - short and numerous micronuclei (for sexual reproduction) macronuclei (for cell metabolism and growth) undergo complex sexual reproduction (conjugation) Complex cells with complex genetic systems Most free-living, while a few are parasitic Ciliates 2 (Fig 25-7) Conjugation (Fig 25-8) Apicomplexans 1 Parasites produce sporozoites (resistant or resting stage) are nonmotile Apical complex of microtubules attaches apicomplexan to host cell Long polar tube is used to penetrate cells Plasmodium causes malaria; transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito Plasmodium (Fig 25-10) Foraminiferans and actinopods Amoeboid cells Often have hard outer shells (tests) through which cytoplasmic projections extend Foraminiferans 1 Secrete many-chambered tests (shells) Pores through which cytoplasmic projections extend to move and obtain food Mainly marine Foraminiferans 2 (Fig 25-20) Actinopods 1 Mostly marine plankton Obtain food with axopods slender cytoplasmic projections that extend through pores in shells Radiolarians actinopods with glassy shells Actinopods 2 (Fig 25-21) Amoebas 1 Use cytoplasmic extensions (pseudopodia) to move and obtain food by phagocytosis Entamoeba histolytica parasitic amoeba causes amoebic dysentery Only parasitic amoeba infecting humans Third leading cause of parasitic disease in humans (10e5 deaths/yr) Infective cyst stage is ingested from fecally contaminated food and water (e.g. Indonesia after Tsunami) Amoeba 2 (Fig 25-22)...
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Bio 102 notes - Ch 25, 29, 30, 31 - Kingdom Protista...

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