Bio Notes February 17

Bio Notes February 17 - Bio Notes EXAM REVIEW Friday...

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Bio Notes February 17, 2009 EXAM REVIEW: Friday February 27 3:30-5:00pm ENDOCRINE Endocrine System o Endocrine glands, cells, tissues secrete hormones (chemical signals) Regulate physiological processes Typically transported by blood o Signals a wide range of target cell types May be located far from the endocrine gland secreting the hormone o Most endocrine responses are slow But long lasting Nervous System o Helps regulate many endocrine responses Neuro-endcorine system Same signal molecule can function as a neurotransmitter or a hormone depending on source o Neurons signal other neurons, muscle cells, gland cells Including endocrine cells o Responds rapidly to stimuli Transmits electrical and chemical signals Negative Feedback Systems o Regulate hormone secretion o Hormones released in response to change in steady state Trigger responses Decreases hormone production Can have knock on effects of other hormone pathways and production o Restore homeostasis o Example: Parathyroid regulation of Ca2+ concentration in the blood: increase Ca2+ exceeding normal range= inhibits Parathyroid; less Ca2+ secretion. Decreased level of Ca2+ below normal leads to increased Parathyroid and increases Ca2+ secretion Hormone Groups Fatty Acid Derivates o Prostaglandins (synthesized form o Juvenile hormone of insects Steroid Hormones o Secreted by adrenal cortex, ovary, testes, placenta o Synthesized by cholesterol Ecdysone, cortisol, estradiol Benzine Ring! Amino Acid Derivatives
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o Thyroid hormones o Epinephrine o Norepinephrine All derived from tyrosine o Melatonin Synthesized from tryptophan Peptide and Protein Hormones o Peptide hormones e.g. glucagon-like hormone, secretin, ACTH, calcitonin o Neuropeptides e.g. Oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (from hypothalamus) o Protein hormones e.g. insulin (protein), growth factors Types of Endocrine Signaling Table 48-3
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