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Questions on Chapter 43

Questions on Chapter 43 - Internal Transport Chapter 43 A...

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Internal Transport Chapter 43 A circulatory system typically consists of blood, a heart, and a system of blood vessels or spaces through which blood circulates Diffusion: a molecule can diffuse 1um in less than 1 msec – so diffusion is adequate over microscopic distances; occurs in small, simple invertebrates (sponges, cnidarians, flatworms) Specialized circulatory systems are required where transport is necessary over many cell thickness in larger animals Requires blood, heart, blood vessels or spaces No Circulatory System (Fig 43-1) In all animals what is the role of the interstitial fluid? is a circulatory system necessary for the efficient distribution of materials in all animals? If not how do these animals carry their oxygen, nutrients and excretory products without blood, a heart or blood vessels? Open Circulatory System (Fig 43-2) Found in arthropods, most mollusks Blood and interstitial fluid is indistinguishable; it spills out of blood vessels into the sinuses - what is this fluid called ? Where does it flow to? What is the body cavity called? This fluid bathes the tissues directly, reentering the circulatory system through openings in heart (arthropods) – what are these openings called? Is there something similar in the molluscks? Closed Circulatory Systems (Fig 43-3) Found in some invertebrates: annelids, cephalopods and echinoderms and all vertebrates Proboscis worms have no heart, but have large blood vessels in a continuous circuit, so how does their blood circulate? What about earthworms? Do they have hemoglobin? Is it contained in red blood cells like vertebrates? What is different about the fast-moving cephalopods? Vertebrate Circulatory System (Fig 43-4, table 43-1): includes a muscular heart that pumps blood into arteries, capillaries, veins, transports nutrients, oxygen, metabolic wastes, hormones , helps maintain fluid balance, pH, body temperature and defends the body against disease Plasma: what is plasma, what is it role in the circulation and describe the proteins that it contains as well as their roles in blood homeostasis.
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What happens if you remove fibrinogen from blood plasma – what is this fluid called? Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Describe the role of the erythrocytes. Do they have a nucleus? What advantage do they have being concave? What happens to them when they are “worn out”? Which protein regulates their production and where is it produced? Where are the red blood cells produced? Which component of the red blood cells carries the oxygen? Can this component also carry carbon dioxide?
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Questions on Chapter 43 - Internal Transport Chapter 43 A...

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