Questions on Chapter 46

Questions on Chapter 46 - Processing Food and Nutrition...

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Processing Food and Nutrition Chapter 46 Nutrition (Fig 46-1) is the process of taking in and using food………………. . Food Processing includes feeding, the selection, acquisition, and ingestion of food Define digestion, absorption and egestion or elimination Differentiate between the food processing habits of herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. Cows are an example of herbivores – how do they digest cellulose? Gastrovascular Cavities (Fig 46-2): Cnidarians have a gastrovascular cavity and a hydroskeleton that provides the environment for digestion, absorption by the lining of the digestive cavity, and egestion. How so? Flatworms have a habit of starting digestion prior to ingestion – explain. Complete Digestive Tract (Fig 46-3) Complex Invertebrates and Vertebrates have a digestive tract that is complete tube i.e. with an opening at each end. As food passes through tube, digestion takes place. Parts of digestive tract are specialized to perform specific functions Various parts of the vertebrate digestive system are specialized to perform specific functions; accessory glands (liver, pancreas, and salivary glands) secrete fluids and enzymes important in digestion. Structure of Digestive Tract Fig 46-5 Trace the pathway traveled by an ingested meal in the human digestive system o Sequence: mouth – pharynx (throat) – esophagus – stomach – small intestine – large intestine – anus The liver, pancreas and salivary glands are described as accessory glands. What role do they play in digestion? Is the wall of the digestive tract essentially the same throughout the digestive tract? Describe…. . The mouth is at the beginning of the digestive system and is involved in the mechanical and enzymatic digestion of which food molecules? Describe the differences in teeth for carnivores, herbivores and omnivores, and why teeth appear to have evolved this way o Teeth and Diet Fig 46-6, Tooth Structure Fig 46-7 What is the secretion produced by the three pairs of salivary glands, and what foods are digested with this secretion? Pharynx (throat) and esophagus: Describe the role of these structures; what is the role of the epiglottis?
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What 2 mechanisms push the bolus of food along the digestive tract for entry into the stomach (Fig 46-8) ? Which sphincter is involved in passage way through from the esophagus to the stomach? Food enters the stomach (Fig 46-9): Mechanical digestion accompanies the release of which enzyme in the gastric juice; to initiate protein digestion? What are the proteins broken down to? What are rugae and how do they help the stomach with increased food capacity? What macromolecule does the stomach columnal cell secrete and why? The gastric glands contain two cells types; the parietal cells and the chief cells.
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Questions on Chapter 46 - Processing Food and Nutrition...

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