# Sep22 - Nonexperimental method Measure two variables to...

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9/22/10 1 Nonexperimental method Measure two variables to determine if they are related Also called “Correlational method” Cannot determine direction of cause and effect Third-variable problem (confounding variable): A third variable may cause the two that were measured Useful if we are interested in prediction Experimental method Manipulate one variable and measure effects on another - Establishes time order Eliminate effects of confounding variables: 1. Experimental control 2. Randomization Random number table Independent variable Manipulated variable in an experiment Sometimes called “predictor” in correlational studies Dependent variable Measured variable in an experiment Sometimes called “outcome variable” or “criterion” in correlational studies Three types of validity Construct validity – extent to which the operational definition reflects theoretical meaning of the variable Internal validity – extent to which we can conclude there is a causal relationship between variables Biggest threat:

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