miller-forecasting-training

miller-forecasting-training - FundamentalsofAirQuality...

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Fundamentals of Air Quality  Forecasting:  PM 2.5  Focus Presented to: National Air Quality Conference Forecaster’s Training Dallas, TX March 2, 2009 905501.09-3580 Prepared by: Dianne S. Miller*, Clinton P. MacDonald, Adam N. Pasch, Patrick H. Zahn* Sonoma Technology, Inc. Petaluma, CA Mike Gilroy Puget Sound  Clean Air Agency Seattle, WA Clint Bowman Washington State  Department of Ecology Olympia, WA Bill Ryan* Pennsylvania State University Department of Meteorology State College, PA * Presenter
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2 Agenda 12:30 – 12:35  Introduction 12:35 – 12:55  Air quality overview 12:55 – 1:35  Forecasting tools overview 1:35 – 1:50  What controls air quality? 1:50 – 2:30  Meteorology and its influence on air  quality (part 1) 2:30 – 3:00  Break 3:00 – 4:50  Meteorology and its influence on air  quality (part 2) 4:50 – 5:00  Questions 
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3 Section 1:  Air Quality Overview What is in our air? About PM 2.5 PM 2.5  seasonal patterns PM 2.5  lifecycles and trends PM 2.5  formation and growth PM 2.5  monitoring PM 2.5  versus ozone
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4 What Is In Our Air? Mixture of invisible gases, particles, and water Mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) Remaining 1% contains  Argon Water vapor  Carbon dioxide Ozone Particulate matter And much more Oxygen 21% Nitrogen 78% Remaining 1%
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5 Air Pollution – Major Pollutants Pollutant Abbreviation Source Carbon Monoxide CO Primary              (emitted) Sulfur Dioxide SO 2 Primary Ozone O 3 Secondary            (formed in the  atmosphere) Nitrogen Dioxide NO 2 Secondary Volatile Organic  Compounds VOCs Primary & Secondary Particulate Matter PM Primary & Secondary
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6 About PM 2.5 A complex mixture of solid and  liquid particles Both a primary and secondary  pollutant Significant particle size variation Seasonal and regional differences Forms in many ways Clean-air levels are <5 µg/m 3  * U.S. concentrations range from 0  to 200+ µg/m * Health concerns Ultra-fine fly- ash or  carbon soot "Night at Noon." London's Piccadilly Circus at midday during deadly smog episode in the winter of 1955. Source: When Smoke Ran Like Water, Devra Davis, Perseus Books *  24-hr average
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7 Seasonal Patterns – Regional/National  (1 of 2) Jan-Mar July-Sept Oct-Dec Apr-Jun Average quarterly PM 2.5  concentrations based on AIRNow data from 2005-2007 PM 2.5   concentrations  vary by  season and  region
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8 Seasonal Patterns – Regional/National  (2 of 2) Sulfate is important in the  eastern U.S. while carbon and  nitrate are important in the  western U.S.
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miller-forecasting-training - FundamentalsofAirQuality...

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