Temp & heat - Temperature
and
Heat
...

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Unformatted text preview: Temperature
and
Heat
 January
28,
2010
 ESPM/GEOG
1425
 1 Forecast
Challenge
 Available
 on
WebVista

 Submission
due
by
 th
at
5
pm
 this
Friday
29 Be
sure
to
complete
the
course
 survey
on
WebVista
 Weather
Briefing
 Recap
 The
“Lazy
W” 
 6 Thermodynamic
State
of
the
 Atmosphere 
 1.
Temperature
 ‐
Degree
of
“hotness”
or
“coldness”
of
a
substance
 ‐ Measure
of
the
average
kineSc
energy
of
any
substance
 Parcel
of
Air
 Thermodynamic
State
of
the
 Atmosphere 
 2.
Density
 -
Mass
of
air
molecules
in
a
 given
volume
 mass kg Density = =3 volume m € Thermodynamic
State
of
the
 Atmosphere 
 3.
Pressure
 Force Newton Pressure = = = Pascal 2 Area m m Force = mass × acceleration = kg ⋅ 2 = N s The
EquaDon
of
State: 
 The
Ideal
Gas
Law 
 States
that
air
pressure,
air
density
and

 air
temperature
are
all
interrelated

 *
a
change
in
one
will
cause
a
change
in
the
other
 P = ρRT air pressure J m-3 (Pascal) air temperature (Kelvin) € air density kg m-3 gas constant 287 J K-1 kg-1 What
happens
to
density
when
we
 increase
the
temperature? 
 Air
parcel
 P = ρRT air pressure J m-3 (Pascal) air temperature (Kelvin) € air density kg m-3 gas constant 287 J K-1 kg-1 Fig. 2-1, p. 26 Fig. 2-2, p. 27 14 The
Kelvin
Scale
 K = °C + 273.16 An absolute scale Convenient for scientific calculations 15 16 The
EquaDon
of
State: 
 The
Ideal
Gas
Law 
 States
that
air
pressure,
air
density
and

 air
temperature
are
all
interrelated

 *
a
change
in
one
will
cause
a
change
in
the
other
 P = ρRT air pressure J m-3 (Pascal) air temperature (Kelvin) € air density kg m-3 gas constant 287 J K-1 kg-1 IMPORTANT
 ΔK = Δ°C A change in temperature in Kelvin units is equal to a change in temperature in Celsius units 18 Energy
and
Phase
Change 
 19 •  Latent
heat
 –  Energy
required
to
 change
a
substance
 
(e.g.,
water)
from
 one
state
to
another
 (phase
change)
 –  A
‘hidden’
heat
 related
to
phase
 changes
 •  Sensible
heat
 –  The
porSon
of
heat
 associated
with
a
 temperature
change
 –  Example:
the
change
 you
feel
in
air
 temperature
on
a
hot
 summer
day

 20 Stepped Art Fig. 2-3, p. 28 Latent
heat
experiment
 •  •  •  •  •  Think
about
taking
a
hot
shower
 Your
body
temperature
is
~
100
°F
 The
water
temperature
is
>
100
°F
 The
air
temperature
in
the
room
is
~75
°F
 Why
do
you
feel
cold
when
you
step
out
of
the
 shower?
 22 Which
ball
rolls
faster?
 23 Fig. 2-4, p. 29 Latent
heat
will
be
important
as
we
 learn
about
heat
transport 
 1  ConducSon
 2  ConvecSon
 3  RadiaSon
 25 ConducSon 
 The
transfer
of
heat
from
molecule
to
 molecule
within
a
substance 
 26 Fig. 2-5, p. 29 Table 2-1, p. 29 Based
on
your
knowledge
of
heat
conducSvity,
what
significance
 does
water
have
for
the
climate
system?
 Average surface temperature (January) Average surface temperature (July) 29 Will
your
soup
cool
more

 quickly
if
you
blow
on
it?
 30 Will
your
soup
cool
more
quickly
if
 you
blow
on
it?
 Change in temperature wind time 31 still air ConvecSon 
 The
transfer
of
heat
by
the
mass
 movement
of
a
fluid 
 32 Fig. 2-6, p. 30 AdvecSon 
 Transfer
of
atmospheric
properSes
by
 horizontally
moving
air 
 34 What drives atmospheric motion and weather phenomenon? 35 Land surface temperature (July 2003) 36 RadiaSon 
 Energy
transferred
from
one
object
 to
another
without
the
space
 between
them
necessarily
being
 heated 
 37 Fig. 2-7, p. 32 RadiaSon 
 •  All
things
emit
radiaSon
 •  Wavelength
depends
on
temperature
 –  Wien’s
Law=higher
the
temperature,
shorter
the
 wavelength
 •  As
temperature
increases,
more
total
radiaSon 
 is
emimed
each
second
 39 Fig. 2-8, p. 34 Fig. 2-9, p. 34 QUIZ
[22]
 When
water
changes
phase
in
the
 direcSon
of
right
to
les,
 c) 
heat
energy
is
removed
from
the
environment
 d) 
heat
energy
is
added
to
the
environment
 QUIZ
[23]
 In
the
diagram,
heat
is
transferred
along
 the
length
of
the
metal
pin
by:
 a) 
radiaSon
 b) 
conducSon
 c) 
convecSon
 QUIZ
[24]
 In
the
diagram,
heat
is
transferred
 from
the
ground
to
the
air
by:
 a) 
radiaSon
 b) 
conducSon
 c) 
convecSon
 QUIZ
[25]
 The
region
of
the
electromagneSc
spectrum
 with
wavelengths
less
than
0.4
μm
is
called:
 a) 
visible
radiaSon
 b) 
infrared
radiaSon
 c) 
ultraviolet
radiaSon
 The
longest
wavelengths
of
visible
light
 correspond
to
the
color:
 a) b) c)  d)  
red
 
yellow
 green
 blue
 RadiaSon
absorbed
by
the
earth‐atmosphere
 system
undergoes
a
series
of
complex
 transformaSons
 unSl
it
is
emimed
back
to
space
 1.
Thermal
Energy
 2.
GravitaSonal
PotenSal
Energy
(GeopotenSal)
 3.
KineSc
Energy
 TransformaSon
from
thermal
and
potenSal
to
kineSc
 energy
are
responsible
for
seung
the
atmosphere

 into
moSon...
 Stepped Art Figure 1, p. 31 ForecasSng
High
Temperature
 •  Cloud
cover
 •  AdvecSon
 49 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/08/2010 for the course GEOG 1172 taught by Professor Snyder during the Summer '10 term at Minnesota Colleges.

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