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Part 2: Journeys in the long 18thcenturyIntroduction for part 2:The 18thcentury was defined by 2 major revolutions. The Glorious revolution in England and theFrench revolution. The 18thcentury was characterized by the quick expansion of European power. Many things contributed to Europe's dominance: 1- The decline of other competing empires(like Mughal and Ottoman). 2- The improvement of European militarytechnology. 3- The increase in the number of African slavestransported to the Americas. 4- The European discovery of new landsin the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This global expansion of European power was followed by an increase of travel and journey writing. Before the 18thcentury, there had been many texts about travel and journeys. For example, Homer's epic "The Odyssey" which describes the hero's journey to his home, and the endless obstacles that he overcame. During the European Middle Ages, description of journeys was important to other genres of writing, like Christian accounts of pilgrimage. In the Renaissance, travellers' tales were appointed towards another use by Thomas More's 'Utopia' in which the traveller-narrator described the imaginary island Utopia. A subsequent utopian fictionlike "New Atlantis" was an imaginative travel to faraway lands in order to criticise the British society. Another literary-religious genre of the 17thcentury that used the technique of describing real and metaphorical journeys was the fictional spiritual autobiographylike "Pilgrim's Progress" by John Bunyan. In addition to all these writing genres that are associated with journeys and travel writing, there was also the genre of personal letters and diariesof travellers like the captain's logbook and ship's journals from long voyages. In Britain, the emergence of the middle-classwas followed by the increase in their appetite for reading, which was met by an increase in the numbers of books, magazines, and newspapers. The majority of the publications were religious and political, but there were also increasing numbers of fictional and non-fictional travel narratives.The emergent fictional narrative borrowed from the non-fictional narrative in order to imitate the historical reality. Many fictional novels addressed the reader in the same form and language as the factual or non-fictional novels. For example, "Candide" gives an impression of historical authenticity (or originality) by claiming to have been translated from the German text of 'Doctor Ralph'. Also, non-fictional travel narratives drew from the fictional narrative. We examine the strict distinction between the fictional and factual by studying how fictional texts like Candide borrow from factual narratives, and how non-fictional texts use fictional techniques to tell their own travel stories.
Voltaire’s CandideIn this chapter, we will focus on both the physical and philosophical journeys of the main characters in Candide considering the context of Voltaire's social and intellectual world.