Architecture and Landscape in Mughal India I. “To be a king is half to be a god.” The Mughal empire of northern India (1526-1858), the third of our ‘gunpowder empires.’ The Mughal dynasty descended from Timur (a.k.a. Tamerlane) and Ghengis Khan (a Mongol = ‘Mughal’). A wealthy military patronage state that emphasized the political and celebratory functions of architecture and garden landscapes. II. The Hindu Context of Muslim Architecture. 1 Hindu India. The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram, ca. 700. Note: garbhagrihas [’womb chambers”: cave-like shrine housing deity], each marked with a mountain-like shikara [tower], circumambulatory path. Meenakshi Amman Temple , Madurai, built ca. 1600 to replace a much older temple destroyed by Mughal invaders in 1300. A 45 acre complex at center of holy city featuring 12 gopara temple towers, the largest 170 ft. (51 m.) tall. Mughal 'adaptive reuse' of Hindu building materials: Quwwat-al Islam (‘Might of Islam’), India’s first
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