Picturesque%20Landscape%20and%20Gothic%20Revival

Picturesque%20Landscape%20and%20Gothic%20Revival - T he P...

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The Picturesque Landscape and Gothic Revival Note: All buildings in this lecture are in England. I. The concept of the Picturesque. Contemporary with Neoclassicism and, like it, a set of assumptions about design and what it means to be modern, rather than just a stylistic label. lntellectllalllnderpinnings. A reevaluation of nature: the Enlightenment philosopher Jean~ Jacques Rosseau and the idea of civilization as a corrupting influence. The "state of nature" as an antidote to the destructive aspects of society, but not as an alternative to society: civilization must be reformed to reflect the authenticity of nature. The important point, in terms of design: the distinction between picturesque and classical form is not a contrast between "the natural" and "the unnatural." Both are higWy stylized and idealized transformation of nature in its raw state. Design theory: Edmund Burke, Essay on the Sublime and the Beautiful (1754); the implication that multiple criteria for beauty can be in use simultaneously. For the first time, an architectural culture will be running two aesthetic programs "in parallel." The archeological imagination: simultaneous historical investigation of Greek and Gothic artifacts, and a new appreciation for historical and global stylistic diversity and its uses. II. The English Landscape Garden. A reaction against 17th C. French fonnal gardens. Stourhcad, Wiltshire, 1743-65, Henry Flitcroft and Henry Hoare. Stourhead composed as a series of picturesque views, perhaps' natural' looking, but as willfully composed as the gardens at Versailles. Note: Grotto, medieval market cross, Pantheon, Temple of Apollo. Several 'mental maps' layered upon the landscape: nostalgic Grand Tour memories in a collection of architectural minatures; an evocation of
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