The+Architecture+of+Glory+17th+_+18th+C.+France

The+Architecture+of+Glory+17th+_+18th+C.+France -...

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1 The Architecture of Glory: 17 th th  C. France  I. Architecture in the Service of a Centralized State. Paris restored as the center of the French state ; the reconstruction of the Louvre , a medieval fortress, begun in 1546 by Pierre Lescot for François I. Lescot remodels SW corner in a French Renaissance Style. Note: marriage of Italian Renaissance architectural and decorative vocabulary with Gothic window proportions and sculptural surfaces. The Reign of the le Roi Soleil (‘the Sun King’), Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) and the glorification of the French monarchy: “ l’État c’est moi ” -- I am the state. Transformations of French classicism: East Front of the Louvre , Paris, 1667-70, designers: architect Louis Le Vau (1612-70), painter Charles Le Brun (1619-90), scholar and scientist Claude Perrault (author of French edition of Vitruvius, 1673). Note: five-part facade characteristic of French palace design, ‘archaeological’ classicism, paired orders, Italianate flat roof broken by central pediment, embedded iron tie rods (in tension) resist forces generated by a daring masonry structure. II. Glory and its Spatial Vocabulary The royal château at Versailles , built in many stages from 1624-1715. Principal sections of palace: original château (hunting lodge) of 1624, first enlargement (the Enveloppe ) of 1668-71 by Le Vau, interiors by Le Brun, landscape by Andrés Le Nôtre. The origins of Western architectural education programs: Establishment of the Académie Royale d’Architecture in 1671, headquartered at the Louvre: one of the French Royal Academies created under Louis XVI and his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Centralization of design profession, demotion of status of medieval guilds of building craftsmen in
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The+Architecture+of+Glory+17th+_+18th+C.+France -...

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