10-4-10.Out - Macro Scales Broader Generalities or General...

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1 Anthro 2 Reading: Johnson 1999 10/4/10 V. HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY 2. Culture History Approach (1920-1960) E. Advances i) Good Descriptions, ii) Lab + Field Methods, iii) Chronology (Relative (older or younger) and Absolute Dating; BC, AD, BP- before present (1950)) Dendrochronology, Radiocarbon- dating method for organic materials 3. Processual or New Archaeology (1960-1980); Cultural Process Approach A. Criticisms of Culture History Approach i) Emphasis on Artifact Classification (People?) ii) Description vs. Explanation (Diffusion). Need to explain culture change B. Cultural Evolution (Multi-linear) – why societies changed overtime, simple to complex Cross-Cultural Regularities vs. Particularities Micro (recognize commonalities between humans across the globe; similar parallel developments for evolutionary trajectories. Spread of ideas, movement of people, trading of goods)/
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Unformatted text preview: Macro Scales, Broader Generalities or General Processes; No longer emphasize Diffusion C. Techno-Environmental Explanations, Cultural Materialism (emphasized that societies are adapting to the natural/physical environment (cultural ecology), Cultural Adaptations (technology), Prime Movers (Technology/ Environment)- primary catalysts to force societies to change over time , 3 Premises of Model: i) Infrastructure affects other Cultural Components (social, political, ideology) ii) Relatively few Options for Cultural Adaptations? iii) Systems Approach; Feedback Cycles; Evolutionary Fitness – Social Form of Darwinian Natural Selection; Arch. are Comfortable with Cultural Materialism – Environ. + Technology D. 5 New Developments (1960-1980) i) Definition of Culture (Stress Variation), L. Binford People Participated in Cultures Differentially...
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