Lesson_03_Probability_terms - Probability Terminology and...

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1 Probability Terminology and Notation Terminology Probability: The likelihood that some outcome occurs. The range of any probability is from 0 to 1. The most common calculation of this value comes from the proportion of times that the outcome would occur in a long run of observations. Trial: One of a number of repetitions of an experiment. Independent Trials: Trials are considered independent if the outcome of any one trial is not affected/influenced by the outcome of any other trial. This will need to be shown mathematically or be told to assume independence. One example, though, would be to consider study time and exam performance: the event Exam Performance is probably affected by event Study Time meaning these two events are dependent (i.e. not independent). Sample Space: The set of all possible outcomes. The sum of all individual probabilities within a sample space is one. Example rolling a six-sided dice: the sample space is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} each probability is 1/6 which adds to 1. Event: A subset of the sample space. Continuing with dice example, an event could be “getting a positive number” making this events sample space {2, 4, 6} Complement: The complement of an event consists of all outcomes in the sample space that are not in that event. From dice, the complement to “getting a positive number” would be “not getting a positive number” which in this case would be the sample space {1, 3, 5} Intersection: The intersection of two events consists of all outcomes that in both events. Pictorially, this means that the two events overlap.
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Lesson_03_Probability_terms - Probability Terminology and...

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