Lesson_04_Commentary - Changes in Cognition Logical...

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Changes in Cognition Logical Thinking Transductive Thinking: connects two particular events into a cause-effect relationship simply because they occurred close in time Inductive Thinking: we make inferences about the world based on a limited set of experiences Deductive Thinking: the individual draws a conclusion based on a logical set of known premises, which are held to be true Thinking Abstractly thinking in terms of what could or might be in various scenarios This growth in cognition allows adolescents to comprehend higher order abstract logic problems, such as analogies. (also: justice, freedom, faith, morality, etc.) Relativistic Thinking adolescents tend to view the world as more relative and based on individual perspectives In some case, this increase in relativistic thinking can lead to extreme skepticism. often doesn't occur until late adolescence or early adulthood Metacognition the ability to introspect and reflect on one's thoughts, emotions and behavior first appears in adolescence; continues to develop through emerging adulthood and into midlife greatly assists with ability to solve more complex problems thought to be root of a number of problems related to egocentrism
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Adolescent Egocentrism (David Elkind) Egocentrism manifests itself in two main features during adolescence The Imaginary Audience o adolescent imagines that everyone is evaluating the just as much if not more than they are evaluating themselves o results from adolescents' limited capacity to distinguish between their thinking about themselves and their thinking about the thoughts of others o also drives many adolescents to seek privacy The Personal Fable o feeling unique in their personal experience and as a result feel no one could possibly understand them o thought to be a product of the imaginary audience o high level of perceived uniqueness can be both a benefit and a danger can be a source of positive self-concept but can also lead to risk-taking behavior as they tend to believe they are immune to potential consequences (optimism bias) Adolescent Idealism adolescents become more reflective in their thinking and they also become more moralistic often appears to be a discrepancy between these new found idealistic values and their own behavior essentially, early adolescents believe that the expression of higher morals or idealistic thinking is the same as attaining them , without anything else needing to be accomplished, including changing their own behaviors; due to intellectual immaturity and not a character deficit Pseudostupidity failing at tasks due to seeing them as more complex than their design often appears to be a discrepancy between these new found idealistic values and their own behavior
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This note was uploaded on 10/08/2010 for the course PSYCH 412 at Penn State.

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Lesson_04_Commentary - Changes in Cognition Logical...

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