INTD 200-Notes-sent by marie

INTD 200-Notes-sent by marie - INTD 200 INTRODUCTION TO...

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INTD 200 – INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Thursday, September 4, 2009 THE MEANING OF DEVELOPMENT The definition of development determines the strategies and policies chosen by the States for developing their country. But how do we measure development? Should we rely on economic growth or social goods? The truth is that there’s no fixed meaning of development; its meaning has changed in the past 50 years and, though there seems to be some consensus now, development is not a clear concept, and policies will vary depending on how it is defined by various organizations. How can we tell if a country is developed or not? Many variables can be considered: Existence of a middle class (income criteria); when the majority of the population can be classified as middle-class, it is a sure sign of a developed country; Strong rule of law, of mostly fair laws High per capita income Provision of public goods (infrastructures) Social indicators, like health and education; these are relevant factors, but not vital; Industries; also an indicator, but there are exceptions, like Canada, where the main source of wealth comes from primary resources; Democracy; it can be an indicator, but it is not significant; We can also ask ourselves if a country went through a demographic transition, which is when a country goes from high birth rates and low life expectancy to low birth rate and high life expectancy, usually due to better health care. In fact, it is a transition from traditional health problems, like lack of immunization or famine, to new health problems, like an aging population. Though a significant factor, there are also exceptions, like China and India, which deal with both old and new health problems. So development is usually measure according to income; countries over a certain income will be considered developed, and those below, developing or underdeveloped. One must always remember that the definition of development depends on the time period, and that even in a set period, the main definition will be challenged, leading to a different set of strategies and policies.
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A Brief Overview of the History of Development In the 15 th and 16 th centuries, development meant the accumulation of wealth for the powerful kingdoms of Europe, and desire for more wealth led Spain and Portugal to begin the colonization of America and the conquest of other parts of the world. The accumulation of goods led nations
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