Chapter 3 The Search of Causes

Chapter 3 The Search of Causes - Chapter 3 The Search for...

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Chapter 3 The Search for the Causes of Crime I Exploring the Causes of Crime A General 1 Two broad types of theories a One holds the individual primarily liable for crime b Second holds that society bares the blame - Your book begins with a discussion of violence in rap music. Do you think music can influence people to be violent? Has it influenced you? If not why are you special or immune? - B Terminology 1 Causation – a factor that triggers or makes possible an event or action 2 Correlation – a relationship between factors 3 Associative – a factor that occurs with an event, but does not create nor is caused by it 4 Deviance – A violation of the social norm, deviance can be, but may not be a crime C Why study Theory 1 If you know what causes crime you might be able to prevent it 2 If you know what causes crime you know how to properly punish 3 If you know what causes crime you may be able to catch the criminal II Criminological Theory A Theory 1 Defined a Theory – a set of related propositions that attempt to explain, predict and control an event 1) Can be strengthened by testing how it describes or predicts what happens 2) Social Science Theory are toughest to test b Hypotheses – explanation that accounts for facts that can be tested by further investigation c Research – the use of standardized systematic procedures in the search for knowledge B Eight General Categories of Theory 1 Listing a Classical b Biological c Psychobiological d Psychological 1
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e Sociological f Social Process g Conflict h Emergent 2 Can also mix and blend theories together a Even theories outside of Criminology b Called Interdisciplinary Approach III The Classical School A US System 1 In the US our CJ system has embraced choice 2 You commit crime because you chose to do so a Although there are some recognized excuses B Theories of Classical Criminology 1 Developed first in the 1700s a Cesare Beccaria in 1764 developed three ideas 1) All decisions are the result of rational choice 2) Fear of punishment is a deterrent 3) The more swift and certain the punishment the more effective the crime control 2 Later Developments a Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher 1) Argues that man has two masters – pain and pleasure 2) Developed a sort of calculus of punishment 3) Also the Hedonistic Calculus b Developed the theory of Utilitarianism c Thought punishment had four goals 1) Prevent all crime 2) If it can’t prevent crime, to limit it 3) To give criminal incentive not to harm others 4) To prevent crime in the cheapest way possible 3 Basic Assumptions (repeated) a Crime is caused by free will b Pain and pleasure are our primary motivations c Crime erodes individual an social bonds and therefore immoral d Punishment is effective as deterrent C The Neoclassical perspective 1 Neoclassical developed recently a Emphasis on free will, deterrence, and retribution 2 Rational Choice Theory a Criminals make a conscious choice to commit crime b Weigh the positives and negatives
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Chapter 3 The Search of Causes - Chapter 3 The Search for...

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