Chapter 13 Prisons and Jails

Chapter 13 Prisons and Jails - 1 Chapter 13 - Prisons and...

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Chapter 13 - Prisons and Jail Revised Summer 2010 I Introduction A Basics 1 Prisons – a state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement II Early Punishments A Lex Tallonis 1 The law of retaliation often expressed as “an eye for an eye” or “like for like” B Flogging 1 Last officially used in Delaware in 1952 a At least in the US 2 Still used in Other countries C Mutilation 1 To physically remove parts or mark the offenders body D Branding 1 A lesser form of mutilation 2 Used by Romans, Greeks, French and British 3 Brought to US in early colonies 4 Classic example is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter E Public Humiliation 1 Shaming the offender in public 2 Often using stocks or pillory F Workhouses 1 An early type of imprisonment where offenders were compelled to work in order to gain or instill the work ethic G Exile 1 Often know as transportation – to remove people outside of the country III The Emergence of Prisons A Overseas 1 Europeans experimented first with prisons a Maison de Force in Ghent Belgium in 1773 2 Gradually America cam to lead the field B The Penitentiary Era (1790-1825) 1 Walnut Street Jail a William Penn settled colony of Pennsylvania 1) Idea was to move away from punishment 2) From foundation till 1718 3) Embraced the “Great Law” 1
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4) Emphasis on restitution and work 2 Pennsylvania reforms a Moved towards idea of reform after revolution b Opened a ‘penitentiary’ at the Walnut Street Jail in the 1790s c Emphasis was on reform 1) Included work for inmates 2) Silence – leading to contemplation of sins d Eventually overwhelmed by numbers C The Mass Prison Era (1825-1876) 1 Pennsylvania a Wanted silence as all time b Lots of isolation 2 New York System or Auburn System a Developed at Auburn Prison b Did have silence, but enforced by guards c Inmates were not isolated from others d Cheaper than Pennsylvania system D The Reformatory Era (1876-1890) 1 Reformatory Style – based on use of indeterminate sentence and the belief of rehabilitation especially for young 2 Captain Alexander Machonochie and Norfolk Island a Machonochie appointed governor of Norfolk in 1840s 1) A true hell hole off of Australia 2) Often inmates committed suicide instead of being sent there b Set up system or marks were you could earn more privileges c System abandoned after criticism it wasn’t too tough 3 Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System a Crofton was head of Irish prison system b Had to work for a ticket to leave the system E The Elmira Reformatory and the Birth of Parole in US 1 By 1870s Auburns system was challenged a Began to look at reform by early release 2 Tried out first at Elmira in New York
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Chapter 13 Prisons and Jails - 1 Chapter 13 - Prisons and...

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