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01-03 - Box 1.3 Published by Baker Academic Copyright 2009...

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Unformatted text preview: Box 1.3 Published by Baker Academic Copyright 2009 by Mark Allan Powell Pharisees and Sadducees Pharisees generally middle class power base outside of Jerusalem closely associated with synagogues primarily teachers and scholars theologically committed to maintaining Israel’s relationship with God through obedience to the law accepted as scripture most of what Christians call the “Old Testament” believed in resurrection of humans to a life beyond death recognized existence of spiritual beings, including angels and demons regarded as social moderates who objected to imposition of Roman authority but did not advocate armed revolt against the Roman powers prominent Pharisees: Shammai (strict interpretations of law); Hillel (more lenient interpretations of law) in the New Testament, they argue with Jesus over matters of law, but are only peripherally connected to the plot to have Jesus put to death the primary forebears of modern Judaism Sadducees mainly upper class power base in Jerusalem closely associated with the temple primarily priests theologically committed to maintaining Israel’s relationship with God through the sacrificial system accepted only the Torah (Pentateuch) as scripture did not believe in resurrection to a life beyond death skeptical of beliefs regarding different spiritual beings regarded as social conservatives who sought collaboration with Roman authorities in ways that would ensure their own place in the status quo prominent Sadducees: Caiaphas and Annas, identified as high priests during the lifetime of Jesus in the New Testament, they are the primary architects of the plot to have Jesus put to death disappear from history after the disastrous Jewish war with Rome in 66–73 CE Zealots The Zealots were radical anti-Roman Jews who advocated armed rebellion against the Roman forces. Their numbers included the sicarii, knife-wielding assassins who mingled in with crowds and stabbed Jews suspected of collaborating with the Romans. Ultimately, the Zealots and their sympathizers would be responsible for leading the Jews into a disastrous war against Rome in 66–73 CE. They probably are not mentioned in the New Testament itself, though one of Jesus’ disciples was called “Simon the Zealot” (the term could simply mean “Simon the zealous one”). The Zealots may not have appeared as an organized force in Palestine until a few years after the time of Jesus. Herodians The Herodians were a political coalition of Jews who supported the family and dynasty of Herod, which included many Roman leaders who ruled various areas of Palestine at various times. In the New Testament they are mentioned The People of Palestine at the Time of Jesus 21 ...
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